Disciplic Succession to Madhvacarya
1) LORD KRISHNA
3) Narada Muni
4) Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa
Madhvacarya's commentary authorised by the auspices of disciplic succession.
Madhvacarya's Commentary on Bhagavad-Gita
OM Adoring the Supreme Lord Krishna , the eternal preceptor, devoid of any defect, complete in Himself; I am giving the commentary known as Bhasya of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita in brief.
Introduction to the Bhasya
Being compassionate to all the people of this Earth, who are afflicted by a lack of righteousness in this world, as well as having little knowledge of their eternal constitutional position and the understanding of how to achieve it; due to the prayers of Brahma and Shiva; Visnu descended down to the material existence and incarnated as the resplendent Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa for the purpose of disseminating the Ultimate Truth.
Consequently for propagating the means of acquiring what is of spiritual benefit and avoiding what is of no spiritual benefit and for elucidating the meaning of the Vedas in relation to human existence in the material world as well as for the sake of those not entitled to the knowledge of the Vedas such as sudras, mleechas, candalas and the many various sub-human species which predominate in all the countries of this Earth; Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa knowing that salvation is only possible through inner realisations manifesting from a living entities consciousness situated in pure righteousness and considering this the magnanimous one, the writer of the words spoken in the Vedas which contain the Ultimate Truth which leads to the Ultimate Consciousness which reveals the Ultimate Personality, who is completely inconceivable by the mind and transcendental to the senses; compiled the Mahabharata by citing historical examples full of wisdom and practical instructions to enable humanity to have the direct revelation of the Supreme Lord Krishna's form, qualities, attributes and pastimes.
The administrators of the material worlds are the demigods and they for the sake of all living entities in the material existence besieged by the three fold miseries of old age, disease and death; devoid of knowledge of the Ultimate Truth even though entitled to it, beseeched Brahma to offer prayers to Visnu the protector of the demigods and preserver of all the worlds. Visnu being pleased incarnated as the resplendent Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa and in other forms as well to illuminate the enlightened meaning of the Vedas to be perceived in a manner not normally accessible through the senses in the form of the fifth Veda, the best of the Vedas, the Mahabharata. Thus along with the Mahabharata, Pancharatra, Ramayana, the Puranas, Srimad Bhagavatam and many other excellent scriptures were compiled.
In the Narayanashtaksharakalpa it is stated:
Even Brahma does not know it fully; others know it but partially. Even the Rishis and Sages declare that verily the Mahabharata has multiple meanings of understanding it.
In the Narada Purana it is stated:
Beseeched by Brahma and Siva, Visnu narrated the Mahabharata which posesses ten different interpretations which cannot be perceived and understood by all living entities. Transcendentally and ingeniusly composed the Mahabharata was declared as the fifth and best Veda, containing the ten-fold meanings, propagating in all parts the glory of the Supreme Lord Krishna. For the realization of the Supreme Lord Krishna is verily better than even the study of the Vedas for it is by the studying of the Vedas that eventually knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna is to be known.
In the Skanda Purana it is stated:
Even if a twice born brahmana knows all the four Vedas and the Upanisads; but does not know the Puranas, then he cannot be considered well versed. Along with the historical accounts of Ramayana and Mahabharata the Puranas must also be accepted as authority. The personified Vedas reflecting, considered that in the future there might be some deception and concealment of the true meaning and goal of Vedanta, which is ultimately to understand the Supreme Lord Krishna. In order to insure that the Vedas would be protected the Mahabharata was written for the common man, the faithful and for the Supreme Lord, respectively. For this reason the Mahabharata has been composed.
In ancient times before the manifestation and division of time by the four yugas the Mahabharata and the Vedas were weighed on scales by Brahma, the demigods and the rsis the Mahabharata weighed heavier. Because it carries the weight of superior principles it is regaled and exalted as the Mahabharata. What is contained in Mahabharata is found in other Vedic scriptures; but what is not contained in Mahabharata is not to be found in any other Vedic scriptures. The Anusasanika Parva which contains the thousand names of Visnu known as the Visnu Sahasranama and the Udyoga Parva which contains the Bhagavad-Gita are paramount, being the very essence of Mahabharata.
According to Nirkuta the Mahabharata is a destroyer of all inauspiciousness. Thus considering the above references, veiws and traditions of the seers the greatness of Mahabharat can be perceived. Who else other than the Supreme Lord incarnate as Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasadeva could have composed the Mahabharata. This is the definitive understanding of all the Puranas and scriptures as spoken and by Narada and others. How else is it possible that all reactions due to offences are dissolved by the knowledge of even one of the intrinsic meanings of Mahabharatas 100,000 verses; but this is true.
Why are other scriptures unable to grant this? This fact is fully and unequivocally confirmed by the Mahabharata itself; but not for the sake of its own praise but solely for the sake of the salvation of humanity. This is an established fact and there is no need to have any doubts about it or any need to question its veracity. The Mahabharata has all the essential ingredients to evolve and protect humanity and Srimad Bhagavad-Gita is the epitome of the Mahabharata being its essence just as ghee is the essence of milk and pollen is the essence of flowers.
In the Kurma Purana it is stated:
Amongst all scriptures the Mahabharata is the best, amongst the 100,000 verses of the Mahabharata, Srimad Bhagavad-Gita is the best and should be contemplated thoroughly with its wisdom incorporated into ones everyday life. The thousand names of Visnu also included within the Mahabharata should also be studied as well. Verily this is the essence of righteousness capable of revealing the Ultimate Truth, achieving communion with the Ultimate Consciousness and the realization of the Ultimate Personality, the Supreme Lord Krishna within the heart of every living entity.
Thus ends the introduction to the Bhasya or commentary to Srimad Bhagavad-Gita
OM Adoring the Supreme Lord Krishna, full of all auspiciousness without any inauspiciousness, I will summarise the conclusion known as Tatparya of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.
Introduction to the TatparyaAmong all scriptures the Mahabharata is the essence. Within the Mahabharata, the thousand names of Visnu known as Visnu Sahasranama in the Anusasanika Parva and Srimad Bhagavad-Gita in the Bhishma Parva are its essence. Knowledge of these surely releases one from the pangs of material existence consisting of the endless cycle of birth and death and gives one entry to the spiritual platform. There is no scripture in all of the material worlds that can compare with the 100,000 verses of Mahabharata; so how can there be anything that can even remotely be compared to Srimad Bhagavad-Gita and Visnu Sahasranama. At the request of Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa, Brahma, the demigods and the rsis, the Mahabharata known as the Bharata in earlier antiquity and the Vedas were weighed on 2 scales the Bharata due to its importance and signifigance weighed heavier and thus came to be known from that time onwards as Mahabharata. Those who can comprehend its meanings are relieved of all karmic reactions in material existence.
In the Brahmanda Purana it is stated:
The Supreme Lord Krishna at an earlier request from Brahma, Rudra and the demigods incarnated as Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa and compiled the Mahabharata, known as the the Fifth Veda, for clarifying the pure principles of human existence.
The Supreme Lord Krishna taught Arjuna the Ultimate Truth and the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness which culminates in the realization of the Ultimate Personality. Devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the highest good for all living entities and whatever is contrary to this has a proportionally reverse effect as verily every living entity depends on the Supreme Lord for the air they breathe, the water they drink, the energy which allows them to grow and their very birth into the material existence. One should know that this is an absolute fact.
In the material existence their are only 2 types of being: the perishable and the imperishable. All living entities have a birth and death are perishable and the soul which is eternal within all living entities is imperishable. Seperate but non-different from the eternal individual soul, the Supreme Lord Krishna who is creating and entering into all the worlds, perfectly sustaining and preserving them all is the imperishable Ultimate Personality. Everything conceivable and whatever cannot be conceived is under His complete control. Yet the Supreme Lord Krishna is not under the control of anything. As the supreme controller of all it is propitious to adore and glorify Him with worship and in this way the performance of sacrifice is engaged in by men of wisdom.
Even those who have attained liberation from the material existence through self realisation, still in fact always worship the Supreme Lord Krishna and relish His nectarian pastimes while performing their prescribed, ordained actions and taste uninterrupted bliss. Being pleased with their devotion even after liberation the Supreme Lord Krishna graces them with the wisdom to perfect themselves even further and being satisfied by their refined and sublime devotion reveals His transcendental form within the heart of His devotee and grants eternal association to them for the rest of his material existence and on after directly into the eternal spiritual worlds.
The Supreme Lord Krishna is independent of Rama, Narayana, Visnu, Buddha, Shiva, Brahma or any other worshipable deity. All are totally dependent upon Him because of His being the original creator of all completely full of all attributes. Devotion in one half consists in knowing the Supreme Lord Krishna to be the Supreme Ultimate Personality perfection devoid of any incompleteness and the other half consists in having within ones heart extraordinarily wonderful feelings of love for Him. By factual knowledge of His name, form, sweetness and pastimes these extraordinarily wonderful feelings for Him will naturally manifest within the sincere aspirants heart without the slightest difficulty. This is the best and most sublime means of attaining Him by the medium of heartfelt feelings. By this alone a living entity is transported to the spiritual worlds at the moment of death and eternally resides in the Supreme Lord Krishna association in His eternal abode. No better way has ever been seen to exist.
Even the most advanced of human beings is the lowliest among the qualified ones. The sages and rishis are of the intermediate class and the demigods are the best of the qualified ones who follow the path of devotion. The primal breath known as prana is the excellent among the qualified ones. In the absence of realization of the Ultimate Truth the position of the demigods cannot be attained. By disengaging oneself from the sheath of non-awareness one should captivate oneself by learning about the divine, transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Lord Krishna and all of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures. Thus by absorbing ones self in this way gaining true knowledge the wisdom of ones factual spiritual position as an eternal spirit soul manifests within the heart.
In the beginning the Supreme Lord Krishna alone existed, neither Brahma nor Siva. He meditated within Himself and all creation was systematically manifested. Whomever the Supreme Lord Krishna desires, He makes a Brahma, a Siva, an Indra, a Surya, a Yama and so forth. These are administrative posts in the hierarchy of universal management. Nothing creates the Supreme Lord Krishna, the creator. Ever evolving, ever expanding the Supreme Lord Krishna is the Ultimate Truth and the Ultimate Reality. Anything contrary to this basic; but paramount realisation is a contradiction of reality and is not valid. Other than the realisation by spiritual insight that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the Supreme Ultimate Personality, a living entity has regrettably and unfortunately missed the paramount goal of material existence. Nothing else is more important than realisation of the Supreme Lord Krishna as the Supreme Lord of all achieving this understanding in ones limited span of life.
In the Paingi Sruti it is stated:
The Supreme Lord Krishna is beyond measure, beyond scope, complete within Himself. None is equal to or greater than or can ever attain His greatness. Resplendent with all attributes, full of compassion and magnimanity without any defects. None exists which is superior or equal to Him. Neither will there ever be at anytime, anyone or anything by the assistance of others or by there own strength equal or greater than Lord Krishna.
Living entities in wisdom should perform prescribed ordained actions without fail. It is never possible for any living entity to entirely renounce all actions completely. Eating is an action, and if one has renounced food then drinking is an action, and if one has renounced drinking then breathing is an action and if one has renounced even breathing then living itself is an action.
Thus for all living entities highest good they all should perform devotion in a regulated manner for the satisfaction and propitiation of the Ultimate Personality, the Supreme Lord Krishna and achieving this attain the goal of material existence.
Thus ends the introduction to the Tatparya or conclusion to Srimad Bhagavad-Gita
Madhvacarya : Founding Acarya
Madhvacarya's authority verified by Vedic scripture:
In the GARGA SAMHITA it is written:
vamanas ca vidih sesah sanako visnu-vakyatah
dharmartha-hetave caite bhavisyanti dvijah kalau
visnusvami vamnangsa-statha madhvastu brahmanah
ramanujastu sesanga nimbaditya sanakasya ca
ete kalau yuge bhavyah sampradaya-pravartakah
samvatsare vikramasya catvarah ksiti-pavanah
sampradaya-vihina ye mantraste nisphalah smritah
tasmacca gamanang hyasti sampradaye narairapi
Vamana, Brahma, Ananta Sesha and Sanaka Kumara will appear as brahmanas by the order of Visnu, for the preservation of eternal righteousness in kali yuga.
Visnu Swami, Madhvacarya, Ramanuja and Nimbaditya will appear respectively as a portion of Vamana, Brahma, Ananta Sesha and Sanaka Kumara.
These saviours will be the establishers of the four authorised and empowered spiritual channels of disciplic succession in the period calculated from the reign of King Vikrama in 54 B.C. subsequently through the present era of kali yuga.
These four authorised and empowered spiritual channels of disciplic succession are to be fully accepted by all beings; as any word, combination of words or formulation of sounds frequencies, invoked or addressed, audible or inaudible, secret or revealed, ancient or contemporary, outside their auspices prove to have absolutely no efficacy.
Garga Samhita, Canto 10, chapter 61, verses 23, 24, 25, 26
sampradaya: authorised and empowered spiritual channel of disciplic succession
vikramasya: the solar year calculated from 54 B.C., the reign of King Vikrama and subsequently through the present and onwards into the future.
mantraste: any word, combination of words or formulation of sound frequencies, audible or inaudible, secret or revealed, ancient or contemporary used to invoke or address the Supreme Lord.