|Chapter 1||Lamenting the Consequence of War||Verse 27|
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
What did Arjuna do then? In answer to this the verse states: seeing, responding, overwhelmed, overcome, besieged with or possessed by despondency. Visidan means grief stricken or greatly despondent.
Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusana's.
The most munificent and compassionate Supreme Lord Krishna had descended to redeem the Earth by giving instruction on the knowledge of the atma or eternal soul. For this purpose Lord Krishna bewildered His disciple Arjuna and utilised him to be in illusion by unjustifiably misinterpreting one verse found in the Chandogya Upanisad VIII.XV beginning ahimsyat sarva bhutani meaning: One should not cause injury to any living entity; and thus from this verse would come to the erroneous decision that as a ksatriya or warrior fighting this battle was against dharma the principles of righteousness.
The use of the word Kaunteyah in addressing Arjuna it indicates that since he is the son of Kunti he is affected by the morality and afflictions of the mundane world. The use of the word krpaya signifies that Arjuna was naturally compassionate. By the use of the word paraya it is intimated that not only for his own soldiers was he compassionate but for the enemy soldiers as well and by the use of the word visidan it is expressing that all the symptoms of being grief-stricken like shedding of tears, shivering, being choked up, etc. have simultaneously manifested as Arjuna began to speak.
Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
In answer to the question what did Arjuna do next? Sanjaya replies with a mood to console the blind Dhritarastra whose mind was visibly disturbed by the doubt that his son Duryodhana might not be victorious but could indeed lose the entire kingdom. Dhritarastra previously had not the slightest intention of giving back to the Pandavas, the children of his deceased brother Pandu, their rightful share of the kingdom. Then when the Pandavas had to suffer further miseries in the forest for 13 years did he consider giving them a reprieve. But in the process of undergoing various trails and tribulations of forest life, Arjuna received many divine weapons from Siva and Indra and his mighty Gandiva bow bestowed upon him by Agni. Arjuna although being protected by Lord Krishna and fully capable of defeating the belligerent warriors of the Kaurava army when he saw so many of his family and friends arrayed against him he became overwhelmed with compassion for them.
One might wonder how is it possible that just before battle such a mighty warrior as Arjuna is smitten so untimely with feelings of compassion. Arjuna is being referred to as Kaunteya the son of Kunti who is the exalted sister of Vasudeva who Lord Krishna accepted as His father. Vasudeva was so magnanimous and compassionate that he forgave Kamsa who was an incurable sinner. So feeling some pity for them Arjuna forlornly spoke the words found in the next verse.