Chapter 2The Eternal Reality of the Soul's ImmortalityVerse 46


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

It may be questioned that fixed determination which seeks service of the Supreme Lord in a disinterested way by renouncing the various fruits described in revealed scriptures is indeed a contradictory resolve. To answer this the Supreme Lord speaks this verse. As a small pot of water all the needs of a person drinking and bathing cannot be satisfied at one place; but all these purposes can be satisfied in a great reservoir of water. Similarly a person who has realised the nature of the Ultimate Truth verily has indeed all the results of all the various prescribed rituals prescribed throughout the Vedic scriptures; for the bliss of the Ultimate Truth contains all finite joys. As is confirmed in the Brihad- aranyaka Upanisad 4.3.32 states: On a fraction of the basis of the Ultimate truth do all living entities exist. Therefore the fixed determination of surrendering in righteousness all ones actions unto the Supreme Lord alone is the correct resolve.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Therefore the rewards available to those who act with spiritual intelligence are not accessible to those who are seekers of fruitive desires. But even still there is some similarity, therefore Lord Krishna states in this verse that all the purposes which can be served by a well of water are easily served by a large reservoir of water as well. So similarly whatever rewards are given in the Vedic scriptures are easily available to one established in spiritual intelligence of brahman or the Ultimate Truth because in such a state of consciousness all benefits are inclusive. Therefore one who knows the science of brahman is known as a brahmana. The word vijanatah meaning one who is complete in knowledge receives the reward of knowing the Ultimate Truth.

Now begins the summation.

Being the source of all creation without the assistance of anything else, complete in all attributes, the Supreme Lord Krishna is known as the reservoir or shelter of all. Reservoir can also mean body of water and at the time of universal dissolution the Supreme Lord assumes the very nature of water on all sides enveloping all.

Whatever benefit is there by the Supreme Lord being pleased with an aspirant, the same benefit is available to one who is knowledgeable of the Vedic scriptures; yet all the meanings of the Vedic scriptures have been understood by one who has realised devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. By such enlightened understanding, the Supreme Lord, who is the Ultimate dispenser of all rewards becomes pleased.

During the course of universal dissolution whatever rewards are ordained by the Supreme Lord Krishna, who is full of all attributes, independent from any support and transcendental to time; the same fruits are available for one who has knowledge of the confidential meanings in the Vedic scriptures.

At the time of universal dissolution nothing else exists in the material worlds excepting the Supreme Lord. Those who by dint of their spiritual intelligence who have become self-realised and have discovered their soul will not be without shelter being under the complete protection of the Supreme Lord. These delivered souls will not be subject to the vagaries of time but insulated by the transcendental energy of the Supreme Lord will be delivered to the spiritual worlds.

Without the essential assistance of His primal breath which is indispensable and is originating from His inherent impulse that alone existed when nothing else other than Him existed. Darkness was enveloped by darkness and in the beginning all was enveloped by water on all sides enveloping all.

In the beginning of creation water alone existed itself solely as impulse and within this impulse generated by the Supreme Lord Himself, the Supreme Lord reclined in all His undivided oneness as revealed in the Vedic scriptures.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary


Bhagavad-Gita: chapter 2, verse 47

Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna that for one who is fixed in goodness, whose sole aim is for liberation; the routine of performing daily duties, occasional duties and fruit bearing duties should be performed automatically and whatever recompense assigned to each of them should not be hankered for desiring rewards and benefits or else it becomes fruitive. The desire for reward and benefits has a binding effect keeping one bound in the material existence. But free from these impediments the same action performed as worship to the Supreme Lord becomes the veritable means to secure liberation. Therefore be devoid of motive for actions nor desire to reap the reward from actions. Though all living entities are acting their part in this world, those who are situated in goodness aspiring for liberation are considered not to be entangled as so. It can be understood that when one eats the hunger one had is appeased and the desire is satisfied as well; yet one would not consider theirself as the cause of the appeasal and satisfaction.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Now the three modes that were dealt with in the Vedas has been set aside for there is not a single thing within the material existence that is apart from the three modes. So in lieu of this one may question that in seeking liberation from material existence one would have to abandon everything, even that which is required for the performance of worship and thus there would be no motivation. To this Lord Krishna instructs this verse that just as different wells for drinking, bathing, washing animals etc. can be used all their uses can be satisfied by a large reservoir of water. Thinking in this way one desiring liberation who is enlightened by the reality of the Vedas realises and follows the conclusion of the Vedas. One should follow that portion of the Vedas to perform activities that are most pleasing to Lord Krishna which is in the best interests of all beings. It is not that one must just adopt everything that is said in the Vedas. One should never do activities against the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures but according to qualification and circumstances one must follow what is prescribed in the Vedas. For example certain rituals such as the agnihotra are prescribed to be performed in the Vedas; but they are prescribed for married householders. They are not to be performed by sannyasis. Also celibacy is prescribed in the Vedic scriptures but it is prescribed for brahmacaris and sannyasis. It is not prescribed for married householders. So it is not that everything in the Vedas is to be followed by everyone although all the four orders must certainly follow the Vedas but according to ones ashram. This is the discrimination regarding this matter.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 2, verse 46 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 46

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