Chapter 2The Eternal Reality of the Soul's ImmortalityVerse 52


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

With genuine concern one may ask: When will I be able to attain that eternal and everlasting spiritual world? An important question but first one must successfully circumnavigate the maze of delusion in the material existence. When one has factually rejected the conception of identifying oneself as the physical body then one will by navigating oneself out of the maze of delusion successfully escape the net of illusion which is likened to a bottomless abyss. Therefore it should be understood that by surrendering all activities in righteousness unto the Supreme Lord Krishna through the auspices of disciplic succession, by His mercy the spiritual intelligence will naturally manifest within and one will begin to clearly comprehend that the physical body is distinctly separate from the individual consciousness. From this understanding one will attain indifference towards the activities that are heard about or that will be heard about. The desire to inquire about temporal things will cease as it will be perceived that only existing temporarily they are not worth pursuing. This is the meaning.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

To answer the query regarding what is essential for one aspiring for liberation the answer is given in this verse by Lord Krishna. The word nirvedam means indifferent, renunciation is not indicated here. Rather it is to be understood that by spiritual intelligence in the process of acquiring wisdom one becomes indifferent to mundane pursuits. It is not that one with spiritual intelligence is indifferent regarding the sublime activities of the Supreme Lord. Liberated sages immersed in the delight of the soul through their highly developed mental state advance onwards by devotion without any desires. Lord Krishna is very attracted to those following devotion possessing these attributes. The austerities and penance performed by Sukadeva and others give them immeasurable satisfaction and great happiness.

Those who meditate on the lotus feet of Lord Krishna relishing His glories and phenomenal pastimes and that of His devotees, they derive a greater satisfaction that is not even available to one fully realised. So needless to speak about the satisfaction of those in the heavenly realms who are forced to descend down to earth again once they have exhausted their benefits. For only those situated with the wisdom of spiritual intelligence can understand Lord Krishna's paramount position and thus perform all actions accordingly.

Even in liberation there is taratamya gradation. If there were no gradation then men of wisdom could not realise the mercy of Lord Krishna's divine grace which is the sole cause of liberation. In this way no one will desire similarity with Him. Even if it is offered it will not be accepted. Thus even those not desiring liberation receive it anyway as the result of devotion and those so desiring it, liberation comes manifesting auspiciousness. This auspiciousness manifests even though undesired. Just as those exalted devotees with special devotion to Lord Krishna receive special mercy at the end of their lives that can be perceived. In the same way dispensation is received by those situated in wisdom at the termination of the physical body. Other dispensation is given for the ascetics at the severance of their mortal coil and still those who experience supreme bliss with distinctive character as experienced. In all these different levels gradation always exists.

Liberation by whatever means is deliverance and in this no one can surpass one for one will be fully situated in the ultimate wisdom of devotion to Lord Krishna by spiritual intelligence. So in the matter of equilibrium it must be regarded in abundance as well as in experiencing misery. Even though abundance and misery must be regarded equally for the supreme bliss it is the realisation in wisdom by spiritual intelligence that is the key ingredient for liberation from the material existence as given in the Narayana Ashtaksha Kalpa. Hence renunciation is not indicated as a means of liberation in Vedic scriptures. There also does not exist any direction to other methods regarding liberation. Thus the understanding for this verse is that by listening to the potent words of great self-realised beings the true purport of the Vedas will be learned.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Performing actions as prescribed in the previous verses and therefore purged of all dross the realisation one attains will extricate them from the perplexities of worldliness arising from identification with actions and the reward of actions. From that point on all that one has hitherto heard regarding the wisdom of renouncing the rewards of action as the cause of motivation for action as well as what one would subsequently hear regarding the fruitiveness of actions will by one's own free will be regarded with complete indifference. What has thus far been given is in the next verse to be described. It is known as yoga which is the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness by actions performed with the light of spiritual intelligence based on bonafide knowledge of the immortal soul.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

If someone were to enquire that if they perform actions in the prescribed manner will indifference to worldly topics come quickly. Lord Krishna indicates that it is up to the individual by use of the word yada meaning when. There is no exact time. Whenever one spiritual intelligence revives itself and allows ones mind to cross over the gigantic dross and mud of mental delusion then and only then one will achieve indifference to all worldly objects that are worthy of hearing and yet to be heard and the rewards of actions in which to accomplish them as written in the Vedic scriptures for this world and the heavenly kingdoms.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 2, verse 52 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 52

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