Chapter 2The Eternal Reality of the Soul's ImmortalityVerse 63


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Continuing Lord Krishna explains that from anger the result is delusion and loss of discrimination. From delusion results confusion and lapse of memory. From loss of discrimination results bewilderment regarding the injunctions of the scriptures and the instructions of the spiritual master. The end result of these is the complete stupefaction of ones intelligence like unto a tree. From the destruction of one's intelligence one spiritually perishes becoming dead while alive as it were.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Lord Krishna has given the origin and causes for the defects mentioned in this verse and the previous one. Sammoha meaning delusion indicates the desire to engage in inappropriate actions. The same meaning is given for moha which also indicates unrighteousness desires and the tendency to inappropriate activities. Bewilderment of memory causes destruction in the intellect. Destruction of the intellect is the non-awareness of ones eternal connection to the omnipresent soul. Pranasyati meaning one falls completely down indicates that one goes to the degraded hellish planets. Due to having unrighteous desires one cannot remember the eternal truths of the Vedic scriptures. Then due to defective perceptions one makes erroneous summations in what actions to perform and what actions not to perform. By these sinful activities one is degraded to the lower worlds.

Now begins the summation.

Sammoha denotes an illusionary perception of knowledge. This means even if the knowledge is right one will be deluded and remember it incorrectly. Thus due to perceiving the essence of the knowledge erroneously ones judgement will be compromised and ones actions will follow a distorted summation.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna is explaining that one whose cravings for sensual objects linger, the effort to overcome the senses without focusing the mind on the Supreme Lord is futile. This is due to the fact that without the Supreme Lords grace the residue of past sensual activities and the pleasure or frustration derived therefrom will delude the mind to pursue sense objects. This debilitating effect creates a magnetic attraction where the desire for sense objects becomes more and more extreme. From this extreme desire springs kama lust. Lust is the next stage of desire. Lust is that which one feels when they thinks that they cannot exist without their desire being gratified. From lust springs krodha anger. Krodha is that frustrated outraged one feels against that which stands in the way of obtaining the gratification of ones senses. From krodha arises sammoha bewilderment and delusion which is the mental condition where one is no longer cognisant of what action should be performed and what action should not be performed. One will foolishly do anything in this condition. Thereafter comes dementia causing loss in memory of the process one began in order to constrain the senses and control the mind. From dementia comes loss of will power, one no longer has the drive and incentive to cultivate themselves towards obtaining spiritual realisation of the eternal soul. When this happens then one perishes their spiritual opportunity being drowned again and again in samsara the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna further explains here that from anger arises delusion which is the lack of discrimination about knowing what actions to perform and what actions not to perform. From delusion comes confusion which is the bewilderment of intelligence and forgetfulness of the truths written in the Vedic scriptures instructed by the spiritual master. From confusion comes illusion the misinterpretation of intellect in determining the true nature of reality. From illusion one becomes completely ruined. One loses focus on the goal of material existence and the purpose of human life and lives in the darkness of nescience. Thus it must be understood that controlling ones mind is essential.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 2, verse 63 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 63

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