Chapter 2The Eternal Reality of the Soul's ImmortalityVerse 69


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

It could be put forth that who is there in this world so perfectly controlled that they are like in a deep sleep free from all activities of the senses. Therefore explanation given in the previous verses is altogether inapplicable. Anticipating such doubts Lord Krishna states: what is night for all creatures meaning those of uncontrolled senses whose minds are covered by ignorance like the night exist in the darkness of the self. But those of self-controlled senses abiding in the light of the self are wide awake. The condition of beings engrossed in sensual pursuits in which all living beings appear awake is as night to the introspective yogi who is absorbed only in the bliss of the self. This is the meaning here. Just as an owl which is blind by day but sees quite clearly at night, one who has realised the Ultimate Truth through the eye of knowledge factually sees everything as the one, undivided Ultimate Truth within everything and not the objects perceived by the senses. Therefore with this understanding it can be seen that the explanation given here is indeed factually applicable.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Lord Krishna is giving the indications of transcendent meditation in this verse. That which is confidential and difficult of realising is the eternal soul which is verily the form of the Supreme Lord which to one who is asleep is vague and unclear. But those who have their senses under control are aware and awake and experience everything through the perception of the realised soul. This is the meaning Lord Krishna is conveying. To those beings whose enthusiasm for the senses is awake for them as a sleeping person recognises nothing around them, cognition of the soul is unknown. Like one who is crazy can be seen by the way they are walking. So it is understood that the body is verily not ours. One who meditates is known as a muni and the word pasyatah indicates one who perceives.

Now begins the summation.

All with spiritual intelligence cannot perceive the ultimate truth with clarity. One may perceive the ultimate truth during the night while others may not perceive the ultimate truth. The latter are the ones bewildered by the material energy. They see nothing except what they can experience with their senses. This is due to being captivated by their senses and unable to concentrate their mind in meditation. But like the sun shining is perceived by everyone internally all is perceived as well but the external consciousness is oblivious to it focused on the enjoyment of sense objects. Yet and still some advanced living entities are able to fathom it. This has been mentioned in the Brahma Taraka.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna is explaining that realisation of the soul is like the darkness of night to all conditioned living entities. Being that the wisdom of soul cognition does not shine forth unto them who pursue sensual objects being likened to the darkness of night. But that understanding of the soul for the realised being who have subjugated their senses is lucidly awake in this night and sublimely aware remaining focused on the bliss of the eternal soul. Whereas those of mundane understanding who occupy their existence awake to the pursuits of sensuous delights in this darkness of night are asleep to the reality of soul cognition. Sensual pursuits are not appealing to one situated in soul cognition.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

One situated in transcendent meditation has no connections to their senses whatsoever; but such a being cannot be perceived. As the functions of the senses such as seeing, hearing, and tasting of an ordinary person are the exact same to one situated in transcendent meditation, How is it possible to properly understand what this means? Here Lord Krishna indicates that the operation of the senses to one situated in transcendent mediation are completely different from an ordinary being. This is because those whose minds are inclined towards sense objects are unqualified to realise the soul their intellect being likened unto the darkness of night. Whereas the self restrained living entities with their sense organs fully controlled remains awake and realises the essence of the eternal soul and God realisation by the eternal truths of the Vedic scriptures. The tendency of all living entities whose external senses along with the mind are not under control in the darkness of nescience indulge in sensual delights in this night. Contrarily the self controlled one sees the objects of the senses as unfit and reflects on the eternal soul within. Thus these are the indications of one situated in transcendent meditation.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 2, verse 69 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 69

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