Chapter 3The Eternal Duties of a Human BeingsVerse 2


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

We see Lord Krishna stating in chapter two, verse 31 that "There is no greater good fortune for a ksatriya warrior then to engage in a war for righteousness. So the superiority of actions has also being praised by Him. Due to the praising of both jnana yoga and karma yoga in a seemingly equal manner some conflict arises in Arjuna's mind and he became confused. But still he is clear enough to understand that the Lord being compassionate is never really perplexing to His devotees; but it may appear so because of a lack of clarity. So Arjuna can perceive he is being seemingly bewildered and this is the underlying meaning of the verse. So Arjuna is beseeching Lord Krishna to clarify definitively which is the superior path of the two that gives blessedness and leads to final beatitude being moksa or liberation.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Hari Om! Previously it has been spoken that self-realisation of the soul is the gained by the means of spiritual knowledge. Lord Krishna after substantiating the cessation of activities with words of wisdom He now redirects Arjuna's attention to the performance of actions. In chapter two, verse 49 the resplendent Lord Krishna had endorsed that cultivation of spiritual knowledge is by far superior to fruitive activities. So Arjuna is questioning why he is being urged to perform savage activities in warfare which is bereft of righteousness, if the attainment of wisdom is superior to performing actions.

Now the summation begins.

Hari Om! Wisdom and equanimity have been discussed. Now karma yoga the yoga of actions is being specifically explained in this chapter. Far inferior is action in the search of enquiry. Here the word yoga attached to karma-yoga is being utilised as a means of acquiring wisdom in the performance of actions.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

What Arjuna is trying to ascertain from Lord Krishna is if the cultivation of spiritual knowledge is superior to performing physical activities for the attainment of liberation and if so then why should one engage in horrendous activities like war and killing. It is well known that jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge is the means to accomplish self-realisation of the soul. Karma yoga or performing physical activities without attachment leads one gradually to jnana yoga. This path of spiritual knowledge can be attained by with drawing all the senses along with the mind from the objects of the senses. If this is the case then Arjuna is wondering why he is not being instructed in the cessation of all physical activities; but instead he is being encouraged to fully use his mind and senses to engage in all of the violent and horrific activities that accompany warfare. Feeling confused by the conflicting instructions of with drawing the senses and the performance of actions, Arjuna now wants a single, unequivocal instruction to determine for certain exactly what course he should embark to achieve the highest good.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Although Arjuna was bewildered he could still understand that Lord Krishna valued the cultivation of spiritual knowledge as being superior to activities without attachment and he could also understand that if Lord Krishna was ordering him to fight this must be also for his betterement as well, The Lord did not specify which path Arjuna was qualified for as yet and thus Arjuna was in a dilemna and needed a clear, definitive instruction that would end his confusion. Arjuna is humbly requesting this with the underlying request that the most merciful and compassionate Supreme Lord should not bewilder the mind of one who is His surrenderd devotee.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 3, verse 2 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 2

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