Chapter 3The Eternal Duties of a Human BeingsVerse 37


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The answer to Arjuna's previous question is now being answered by Lord Krishna. The main cause for such flagrant behaviour is kama or lust. Also krodha or anger is spoken about but it is actually instigated by lust as well. This is because when kama is unable to satisfy its desires then immediately it takes the form of krodha. This kama is born from rajas guna or the mode of passion. This indicates that when there is an increase of sattva guna or the mode of goodness then kama will be decreased proportionately. It should be clearly understood that kama and krodha are formidable enemies on the path of moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Both kama and krodha must be terminated by the method Lord Krishna prescribes in the next verses; for it is definitely not appropriate to try to appease either of them as it is useless to try to pacify kama because it has an insatiable appetite and is never satisfied and it is also useless to appease krodha because it is has a terribly temperament and is unpredictably sinful.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

The influence which is the most powerful and destructive on human beings is kama or lust followed by krodha or anger which arises from frustrated desires. Those who hypothesise contrarily are not cognisant of the subtle difference involved in the mixture of the two. Therefore it can be understood that without desire there is no opportunity for anger to manifest and indeed it does not. Since there are many causes of anger it is called mahashanah or great devourer. Since anger becomes the cause of committing abominable actions it is called mahapaapma or great sinner and because it is counter productive to all human goals of righteousness it is called mahavairi or great adversary.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The most powerful obstruction in their pursuit of jnana yoga or the path of cultivating Vedic knowledge is kama or lust. The intense addiction to enjoy sense objects. This addiction is fueled by past habits such as remembering senses enjoyed or by senses frustrated in the attempt to satisfy one's desires. Because the person is helplessly attached to the attraction and aversion of the three gunas or goodness , passion and nescience which are constantly fluctuating the mind and senses influencing all beings. This kama is a most powerful enemy and exerting its power compels a person to enter into its province of sense delights in pursuit of pleasure. Then if by chance while in the pursuit of sense delights one's desires are thwarted or frustrated then this same lust transforms itself into intense krodha or anger. Enacting sinful actions in the attempt to satisfy one's frustrated senses even if futilely and prepared to perpetrate even violent acts against anyone that thwarts in any way the gratification of their senses. It should be known that kama and krodha arise from rajas guna or the mode of passion and it is a very hostile adversary to those who are engaged in jnana yoga.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna is explicitly confirming that the root cause and great impeller of sins is kama or lust known to forcefully compel one’s senses to race impetuously towards objects of the senses. But kama’s subordinate krodha or anger is also the cause of many evils like violence. When lust is impeded and desires are frustrated it is anger that replaces lust in another form. Hence krodha is also a form of kama and both arise out of rajas guna or the mode of passion. This suggests that by increasing sattva guna or the mode of goodnes the effects of rajas guna can be decreased and subsequently the power of desires is less. Because controlling desires one controls lust and controlling lust one controls anger. There is no other way. Thus one should not miss that they are inteconnected and try to control each seperately. But kama is extremely difficult to control once it has been activated because it is insatiable and it does not become tranquil after even enjoying wealth, pleasure of the flesh, kingdoms and even the whole world; to the contrary its desires increases exactly as a fire increases when oil is poured on it, it rages out of control and so it is an extremely evil propensity and when impeded it explodes into anger destroying all in its path like a horrific forest fire.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 3, verse 37 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 37

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