Chapter 4Approaching the Ultimate TruthVerse 32


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Now Lord Krishna concludes His appraisal of yagnas or offerings of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord in karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities in order to adequately praise yagnas performed in jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge. Thus yagna is directly prescribed by the Vedic scriptures which are authorised by the Supreme Lord. Yet it should be understood that all yagnas are accomplished by activity whether it is of the mind, of speech or of the body. This activity material and not of the reality of the atma or soul which is purely spiritual. By comprehending this and devoting oneself to acquiring spiritual knowledge one will attain moksa or liberation from transmigratory existence.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

The word brahmano is referring directly to the Supreme Lord Krishna the recepient of all yagnas or offerings of worship, through His attribute the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. Such yagnas according to the qualifiyation of the performer may be mentally performed, orally performed or physically performed. Knowing this and performing ordained activities according to the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures one will attain moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence. Performing yagna according to one's rank and station in life is what is being given here and whether it is mental, oral or physical the activity is still performed by concerted effort. So what is ordained by the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures should never be ignored or disregarded.

Now begins the summation.

The words vitata brahmano mukhe means everything should be offered to the Supreme Lord. In the Brahman Vaivartaka Purana it states that: In all yagnas the Supreme Lord alone is to be propitiated. This means that every activity and all endeavours one undertakes should be in harmony with the injunctions and ordinances of the Vedic scriptures which are in complete and total harmony with the divine will of the Supreme Lord. No other alternative is tenable or acceptable for a human being.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna has described the 12 different performances of yagna or offerings of worship in propitiation to the Supreme Lord that are the means of attaining atma tattva or soul realisation performed in karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities. It should be clearly understood that all yagnas manifest from activity of the mind, the speech or the body and involve the performance of regular daily duties and occasional special duties. Understanding this wisdom and practically applying this knowledge one shall by their own efforts dissolve all their sins and become free from samsara or bondage frrom the cycle of birth and death in the material existence. The wisdom aspect of karma has been explained by showing how jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge is involved in karma yoga. Next the importance of wisdom in jnana yoga will be elucidated.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna confirms the authenticity of the previous described yagnas or offerings of worship as being sanctioned by the Vedic scriptures by the word evam meaning of this kind and the different types have been explained in detail in the parampara or disciplic succession and have been transmitted from spiritual master to disciple in the tradition of the Vedic culture. All of the before mentioned yagnas are performed by mind, by speech or by the physical body but their actions are of a transitory nature and the atma or soul is eternal. So these actions and the atma are not invariably connected. Thus comprehending this in reality one will be free from samsara the cycle of birth and death caused by actions.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 4, verse 32 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 32

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