Chapter 13The Individual Consciousness and The Ultimate ConsciousnessVerse 16


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Furthermore Lord Krishna explains that His manifestation as Parabrahma is the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and is within and without all living entities both moving and stationary and all that is animate as well as inanimate. This is so even as gold is exists in a bracelet, a necklace and a ring equally or that water exists within unlimited waves and countless drops of rain. Parabrahma alone is the sole cause of everything, all effects in inumerable and variegated forms; yet so subtle that it has no material form or qualities. It is incomprehensible and inconceivable being incapable to be understood by the mind as well imperceptible to the senses. Therefore to the ignorant Parabrahma is very far as millions of miles away being transcendental and far beyond prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence. Yet to the spiritually intelligent it very close and near as within one's own heart in its manifestation as the atma or immortal soul. The Iso Upanisad V beginning tad ejati tan naijati tad dure tadvantike means: The Supreme Lord moves and moves not; He is far away and very near; He is within and without. Ejati means move, naijati means moves not. The words tadvantike should be divided as tat meaning He the Supreme Lord, v meaning also and antike meaning very near. Thus it is clearly confirmed that Supreme Lord is always present.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The word bahih means outside, this refers to the atma or immortal soul which still exists even when it departs a physical body at death and abandons the subtle body along with the five elements of earth, water, fire, air and ether although it is present within them as well. As confirmed in the Chandogya Upanisad VI.VII.VII beginning sa ya esho animaitad means: The source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence is Parabrahma the Supreme Lord Krishna who is eternally existing in everything by His transcendental potency. By nature it is acaram or stationary and unmoving but it is caram or moving in its embodied state. Due to being supra-subtle without material, mundane qualities it is avijneyam or incomprehensible. The atma or immortal soul possesses all powers and knowledge although it occupies and inhabits a bodily form. Because it is subatomic it can not be perceived by technological methods and remains a mystery. Therefore it is extremely difficult for worldly people of logic and reason to understand it being separate and distinct from the physical body. The words durastham cantike ca tat means that the atma although present within their own bodies is very far away from those who are arrogant, ostentatious, irreverent, etc. who do not possesses the 20 virtues of righteousness given in verses 8 to 12 such as humility, reverence and nonviolence. But contrarily it is extremely near to those dear ones who possess the 20 virtues. This is because these 20 virtues facilitate a living entities ability to perceive internally and realize the atma.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna who is known as Parabrahma is the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence which is without and within the elements such as earth, water, fire, air, ether, etc.; yet He is outside of them and distinctly different and separate from them because He is their cause and they are His products. At the same time He is within all as well constituted as physical bodies constituted by the five elements in the inanimate immovable and the animate movable. In every aspect of creation He is existing in a subatomic manifestation in all jivas or embodied beings of every living entity as the atma or immortal soul. Because He exists in an extremely subtle subatomic state it is impossible to perceive Him by the senses or understand Him by the mind. So He is acutely incomprehensible and it is very difficult for transmigrating jivas to realise that He is different and separate from the physical body although He resides within the etheric heart of all jivas as the atma. For those jivas who are bereft of the 20 virtues given by Lord Krishna in verses 8 to 12 the atma is very far away indeed meaning the consciousness required for self-realisation in order to realise the atma is very far away. Those jivas who are endowed with these 20 virtues such as humility, non-violence, serving the Vaisnava spiritual master, etc.; the atma is very near indeed meaning that the consciousness required for self-realisation in order to to realise the atma is very near.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 13, verse 16 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 16

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