Chapter 13The Individual Consciousness and The Ultimate ConsciousnessVerse 19


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Thus the reality concerning the ksetra or field of activity and the ksetra- jna the knower of the field of activity has been explained in conjunction with the rewards of this knowledge and description of one qualified by this knowledge. What has been previously taught in detail by great sages like Vasistha and Parasara concerning the ksetra or field of activity was given in brief by Lord Krishna beginning in verses 6 and 7 with the maha-bhutany or the five fundamental elements. Continuing in verses 8 to 12 beginning with amanitvam or humility and ending with tattva-jnana-artha-darsanam or the goal of spiritual knowledge. Concluding in verses 13 to 17 of an explanation of Parabrahma and the examination of His nature. All these things have been precisely enumerated in a concise manner. Knowing well these things and practicing them incessantly a devotee of Lord Krishna as described in chapter 12 becomes qualified and worthy to attain His eternal association in this very life.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

In verses 8 to 12 Lord Krishna has given the means of knowledge by imbibing the 20 super excellent spiritual endowments beginning with amanitvam or reverence and adamvitam or humility even before explaining the modifications of the ksetra or field of activity. This is because they hold the primary position and the many modifications of the ksetra hold a secondary position. Here Lord Krishna is not at all implying any merger or absorption into His nature by a qualified aspirant. The words mad- bhavayopapadyate means qualification for the Supreme Lords service. When a jiva or embodied being becomes a devotee of the Supreme Lord one becomes qualified to attain bhakti or exclusive loving devotional service unto Lord Krishna and subsequently when one achieves moksa or liberation from material existence at that time one attains the Supreme Lords association in the spiritual worlds.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Previously a concise description of what is to be known as constituting the ksetra or field of activity has been given by Lord Krishna beginning in verse six with maha-bhutani meaning the five fundamental elements of material nature and in verses 8 through 12 beginning with amanivitam or reverence the 20 excellent are enumerated as the means for acquiring the knowledge of atma-tattva or soul realisation up to perception of the eternal spiritual reality, knowing the Supreme Lord reside within the etheric heart of all living beings. Here Lord Krishna states mad bhakta meaning His devotees are knowledgeable of the reality regarding the ksetra, knowledgeable of the means by which to realise the atma or immortal soul which is of the nature of ksetra-jna or knower of the sphere of activity and distinctly different from the ksetra. Only His devotees are those situated in such knowledge and mad bhavayopapadyate meaning qualified to attain exclusive loving devotion to Him which is everlasting and eternal and which is different from samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Next Lord Krishna will explain the beginingless state of the two distinct natural verities of matter and soul conjoined together and the different functions each is engendered to perform as well as how these two verities came to be situated in this condition.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna is pointing out that His devotees are particularly qualified and reveals what they achieve by being devoted to Him. Beginning with the words iti ksetram tatha jnanam meaning knowledge of the field of activity He is referring to the ksetra of five fundamental elements, the senses, ego and mind, etc. described in verses 6 and 7. The words tatha jnanam refers to the 20 super excellent spiritual endowments given in verses 8 to 12 beginning amanitvam or reverence where concluding this theme He confirms that factual knowledge of atma tattva or soul realisation and the ksetra- jna or knower of the field of activity is actual knowledge and all knowledge that does not facilitate this realisation is nescience. From their to verse 18 is described in a nutshell how imbibing the 20 spiritual endowments lead to this realisation and concludes by revealing that He resides in the etheric heart of all living beings and that invariably it is His devotees by virtue of their possessing these spiritual endowments that are able to attain Him. This is denoted by the word vijnaya or knowing. Knowing the true nature of the ksetra or field of activity by virtue of the 20 spiritual endowments is the means to realise the ksetra-jna or the knower of the field of activity which is the atma the immortal soul and transcends samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. The conclusion is that Lord Krishna's devotees knowing the true nature of spiritual eternity and what is the ultimate reality qualify themselves faithfully and enthusiastically in His exclusive loving devotion.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 13, verse 19 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 19

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