|Chapter 14||The Three Qualities of Material Nature||Verse 16|
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Here Lord Krishna describes how the characteristic actions of the three gunas or modes of material nature produce different results. According to Kapila deva the liberated avatara or divine incarnation, the results of being situated in sattva guna or the mode of goodness is purity, virtue and happiness. The results of being situated in raja guna or the mode of passion is desires, activity and attachment. The results of being situated in tama guna or the mode of ignorance is stupefication,pain and misery. Further characteristics of the three gunas from another perspective will be elaborated on in chapter 18 beginning at verse 23.
Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:
The result of raja guna or the mode of passion does not categorically mean only pain but denotes pleasure mixed with the pain. Actions are known to be in rajas. The Shabda Nirnaya states: In the word duhkha, the dhu denotes pain and the kha denotes pleasure.. The Sharakarakshya text states: Rajas verily manifests in small measures of pain and pleasure . Along with pleasure must also come pain; therfore such persons are known as both happy and unhappy. Unhappy due to the pain from the effort and happy due to the pleasure of enjoying the result. Otherwise without such joy the excessive pain caused by rajas would be the same as the pain caused by tamas which has an extremely limited scope for fulfilling desires. The Skanda Purana states that tamas or darkness is caused by ignorance and always results in continuous pain.
Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Thus result of those situated in sattva guna or mode of goodness at the moment of death is birth in a family of enlightened transcendentalists who are atma tattva or knowledgeable of the immortal soul. Such a virtuous being performs all actions without any motive for rewards but only for devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. The result of such actions is only increasing one's bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord. Purity means the absence of any pain so say sages who are in a position to know such matters. The result of those situated in raja guna or the mode of passion at the moment of death is birth among those prodiguous families who only perform activities desirous of rewards. They actually engage in actions with the sole intent of enjoying the results themselves and gratifying their dependents and then again and again embarking on more and more ventures developing more and more passion as they do. Hence do they perpetuate a mountain of karma or reactions to actions, some good giving pleaure and some bad giving pain. Thus they perpetuate themselves permanently into samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Similarly the result of those situated in in tama guna or the mode of ignorance at the moment of death is inertia, nescience, darkness of knowledge.
Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Now Lord Krishna speaks of the different results one receives and the consequences of being in one or the other of three gunas or modes of material nature. The avatar or divine incarnation Kapila deva has confirmed that the result characterised by sattva guna or the mode of goodness is purity, happiness and wisdom. The result of raja guna or the mode of passion is characterised by pleasure and pain due to the combination of merit and sin in the activities committed. The result of tama guna or the mode of ignorance is inertia, nescience and delusion.