Chapter 18Final Revelations of the Ultimate TruthVerse 42


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The natural duties of a brahmin or priestly class are given by Lord Krishna. Serenity is control of the mind. Self-control is controlling the impulses of the external senses. Purity is internal and external cleanliness. Forbearance is forgiveness. Straightforwardness means without duplicity. Knowledge is understanding the Vedic scriptures. Realisation is experiencing direct cognition. Faith is the conviction that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all. All these duties of brahmins are born of their nature in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:

There is no commentary for this verse.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The natural duties appropriate for the Brahmins the priestly class are the following: 1) Samah is control of the inner sense the mind. 2) Damah is restraint of the external senses. 3) Tapas is austerity of the body as prescribed in Vedic scriptures like fasting. 4) Saucam is purity, sanctifying oneself to perform Vedic ordained duties. 5) Ksantih is forbearance, maintaining composure from provocation of others. 6) Arjavam is uprightness, expressing to others what one thinks without duplicity. 7) Jnanam is knowledge of the Vedic scriptures. 8) Vijnanam is realising the conclusions of the Vedic scriptures. 9) Astikam is absolute, irreversible faith the veracity of the Vedic scriptures which is impervious to any attempt to dissuade it. Such a resolute conviction is aware that: A) the Supreme Lord Krishna is the ultimate creator, maintainer and sustainer of all creation and that He is localised within every living being throughout all existence as Paramatma the omnipresent, supreme soul and that His all pervasive impersonal aspect is the Brahman the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and that His personal sound frequency is the transcendental sound vibration OM. B) The Supreme Lord Krishna and any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the indomitable antithesis to all that is evil and unrighteous. C) The Supreme Lord Krishna and His incarnations possess unlimited, glorious attributes and resplendent qualities such as omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, full power, full beauty, full cognizance, full renunciation, full opulence etc. which are eternal and transcendental.

D) The Supreme Lord Krishna is the sole object to be known in Vedic scriptures. E) He is the sole cause of all creation. F) He is the sole foundation of all creation. G) He is the Supreme controller of all creation. H) All prescribed Vedic activities enjoined to perform are variations of His worship I) Worshipped as such He confers blessings on humans according to their deeds.

This reality has already been evidenced in verses throughout Srimad Bhagavad-Gita like: In chapter 5, verse 29: One who understands that Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all achieves liberation. In chapter 7, verse 6: Lord Krishna is the sole cause of creation and destruction of all existence and in verse 7: There is nothing superior to Lord Krishna. All creation is dependent upon Him. In chapter 10 verse 3: One who knows Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all the worlds is not deluded among mortals and in verse 8: The wise know that Lord Krishna is the source of both the material and the spiritual worlds. In chapter 15 verse 15: Lord Krishna is the supreme soul within the heart of all living entities by the Vedas alone He is to be known and coming in chapter 18 verse 46: As everything is pervaded by Him, one attains perfection from performing prescribed Vedic activities to Lord Krishna. In this way this topic has been well evidenced.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna first elaborates on the duties of Brahmins according to their respective natures based upon the inherent quality of sattva guna the mode of goodness. Control of the mind and senses, engaging in austerities such as fasting and restraint as enjoined in Vedic scriptures, external purity by being physically clean and internal purity by free of desire and animosity. Forgiving those who have been ungrateful and hateful, devoid of duplicity having mutual concordance in body, speech and mind. Firm, unshakeable faith in the Vedic scriptures. Knowledge of what is real and what is illusory. Realisation of the essence of the Vedic scriptures by understanding the actual non-contradictory conclusions of the seemingly contradictory anomalies in various Vedic scriptures. Such are the duties of Brahmins.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 18, verse 42 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 42

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