Chapter 18Final Revelations of the Ultimate TruthVerse 61


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

In the two preceding verses the subservience of all jivas or embodied beings to prakriti or the material substratum pervading all existence have been given according to the viewpoint of sankhya or analytical reasoning. Now Lord Krishna declares the conclusion in this verse and the next. As has been confirmed in many of the Vedic scriptures, within the etheric heart of all jivas abides the Supreme Lord as paramatma the Supreme Soul who monitors the thoughts and activities of all living entities. The Svetasvatara Upanisad VI.XI beginning eko devah sarva bhutesu states: The Supreme Lord who is one without a second abides in the core of the heart in all created beings as the indwelling monitor. The Briharanyaka Upanisad III.VII.XIII beginning yah sarvesu bhutesu tisthan states: The Supreme Soul abides within all beings yet He is different from all beings. Whom beings do not know. Whose creations all beings are: Who controls all beings. Who is the inner ruler of all beings as well as the inner controller of all beings. How this is to be understood is inconceivable but by His illusory energy known as maya all beings are revolving in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death engaged in a myriad of activities. The jivas who identify with the physical body are kept revolving life after life in material existence. The jivas who identify with the Supreme Lord have the chance to transcend this by His grace.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:

There is no commentary for this verse.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Isvarah is the all pervading Supreme Lord as the indwelling monitor within hrid dese the core of the heart which is the source of all consciousness, the basis of all actions pravritti or passive and nivritti or energetic. The Supreme Lord abides simultaneously in the etheric heart of every jiva or embodied being in a subatomic form known as paramatma the Supreme Soul. Once so installed the Supreme Lord activates, energises and animates the physical body of the jiva or embodied being. Maya the external illusory potency bombasts and buffets the jivas interminably in the material existence in accordance to and consistent with the guna or mode of material nature which is predominate. The Brihadaranyaka Upanisad III.VI.XV beginning yah sarvesu bhutesu tisthan states: The Supreme Lord abides in all beings and controls all living entities internally.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Before Lord Krishna spoke of doership as dependent upon material nature and the three gunas or modes of material nature that one is endowed with. This was in line with the samkhya philosophy of analytical reasoning. Now He confirms that all jivas or embodied beings are under the total control of the Supreme Lord based upon the Vedic scriptures. The Taittiriya Upanisad III.IX.II beginning sa yascayam purushe states: The Supreme Lord residing on that plane ot transcendent eternity is the same Supreme Lord that resides within the core of the etheric heart of all jivas o embiodied beings. The Brihadaranyaka Upanisad III.VIII.IX beginning etasya va aksharasya states: Verily by the Supreme Lords command the sun and moon maintain their fixed positions, the heavens and Earth keep ther respective position, the seconds, minutes, hours, days, nights, weeks, months and years all maintain their relative posions. The Supreme Lord is the ultimate controller of everything animate and inanimate which are acting under His external energy prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence from whence arise three gunas or modes of material nature which determines all actions based upon the karma or reactions to previous good and evil actions enacted in a physical body and five senses which is likened unto a machine. The purport is that just as a puppet master controls his puppets so does the Supreme Lord control the jivas.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 18, verse 61 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 61

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