Chapter 18Final Revelations of the Ultimate TruthVerse 78


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The internal intention Sanjaya is implying with this statement is that the dynasty of the Kauravas should give up all hopes of winning the battle and rulership of the entire Earth. Wherever Lord Krishna is present together with Arjuna then prosperity, victory, opulence and righteousness will also be present. The word dhruva means firmly established and qualifies that the preceding qualities are guaranteed. Sanjaya is subtly implying that it is not too late for the Kauravas even on the brink of war, to lay down their weapons and take refuge of Lord Krishna by sharing the kingdom with the Pandavas. All Arjuna and His four brothers requested in the whole Earth was 5 provinces, one for each brother. The wicked King Duryodhana of the Kauravas retorted that he would not grant them land enough to fit on the top of a needle. But now they had to fight to the death for the single rulership of the total Earth. So the implied advice to save the dynasty fell on deaf ears.

One who is devoted to Lord Krishna easily achieves moksa or liberation from material existence and release from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. This is acquired by His Grace through knowledge of His personal bestowal to all jivas or embodied beings the atma or immortal soul which insures continuity in existence and gives the opportunity to return to spiritual existence. This factually is the essential teaching of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita without having comprehended the final conclusion cannot be appreciated.

Bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord is the most potent and efficacious means to achieve liberation and combined with knowledge of the atma is the essential intermediate step to attain eternal communion with the Supreme Lord. It cannot be stated logically and is quite unreasonable that knowledge is the same as devotion; for just to have knowledge of something does not preclude that one will have devotion for it. Lord Krishna has already given examples. In chapter 10 verse 10 He states: Those devoted to Him receive the grace by which they can ascend to Him. In chapter 13, verse 18 He states: That b devotion His devotees becomes qualified to attain Him. In chapter 18 verse 55 He states: That only by devotion can He be truly known. The Vedic scriptures also confirm this. The Svetasvatara Upanisad VI.XV beginning eko hanso bhuvanas yasya states: Only by knowing the Supreme Lord as He is may one transcend the cycle of birth and death. This theme is found confirmed in the Vedas, the Upanisads and the Puranas alike. The conclusion summed up appropriately in verse XXIII of the same Upanisad beginning yasya deve para bhaktiryatha states: That only by bhakti to the Supreme Lord Krishna and devotion to the spiritual preceptor who delivered one to Lord Krishna will the eternal spiritual truths shine illustriously within the heart of such a surrendered servitor. Therefore it is established that only by bhakti can communion with the Supreme Lord by attained.

With the understanding bequeathed by the Supreme Lord has this commentary on Srimad Bhagavad-Gita been composed. May the Supreme Lord Krishna who is intrinsically filled with bliss be pleased by this. This commentary entitled Subodhini has been written by the celibate monk in the renounced order known as Sridhar Swami. He has placed on it the glory that is worthy of its due by receiving the foot dust of the blessed Supreme Lord Krishna.

Does a person who desires to recover jewels lying on the bottom of the sea futilely attempt to bail out the ocean with the palms of his hands or does he get an able bodied captain and a ship. In the same way does a person who desires to understand the ultimate truths revealed in Srimad Bhagavad-Gita by relying on the strength of his own intellect. Therefore the absolute conclusion is that one must first be accepted by a Vaisnava spiritual master and learn submissively from him in order to be able to comprehend and understand this supreme science spoken by Lord Krishna known as Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Lord Krishna declares that there is no human more exalted then He who devotes his life disseminating the teachings of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to His devotees and explains the meaning of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to others. By these words the topmost gradation of human beings has been elucidated. This applies specially to all human species and specifically to the demigods in the heavenly planets.

The spiritual potency of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita is so sublime and phenomenal that even by aurally hearing this science recited by a devotee of Lord Krishna leads to moksa or liberation from material existence and release from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Knowledge of the atma or immortal soul and its eternal relationship with Lord Krishna increases one's individual consciousness exponentially. Even those who have achieved moksa still derive the greatest pleasure from listening to it explained from the mouth of a devotee and those devotees who are imbued with a life of austerity and devotion it becomes like aural nectar. The demigods in the heavenly planets whose minds are greatly enhanced know the entire Srimad Bhagavad-Gita by memory get immense pleasure from singing it as a divine song in the anustup meter consisting of 32 syllables per measure. Their is no greater pleasure or joy then derived from discoursing on Srimad Bhagavad- Gita's chapters, verses or even half a verse.

Full body prostrated obeisance unto the Supreme Lord Krishna, the dearest and most precious of all that is dear and precious. He alone is the embodiment of all wonderful attributes and superlative qualities, having no defects and He bestows nityananda eternal bliss. The Supreme Lord Krishna is endowed with sat eternal existence, cit unlimited consciousness and ananda or endless bliss. He is always the recipient of glorification and worship from Brahma, Shiva, Laksmi, Surya the sungod, Vayu the god of wind and others.

There have been three forms of Vayu who have appeared in the last three yugas or ages. Their appearances are of mystical confidential context. First in Treta Yuga was Hanuman the servitor of Lord Rama who discovered the whereabouts of Sita-devi and originally spoke the Ramayana prior to Valmiki as well devastating the demoniac armies of Ravana. Second in Dvarpara Yuga was Bhima of the Pandavas who following the commands of Lord Krishna destroyed the demoniac Kaurava dynasty which was inimical to dharma or eternal righeouness. Third in Kali Yuga is the sage known as Madhvacarya who put the mayavadis impersonalist into flight by composing this commentary propounding the glorious Srimad Bhagavad-Gita and eulogising the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The name yogesvara attributed to Lord Krishna means the ultimate lord of all yogas or all prescribed Vedic activities that lead directly to communion with the Supreme Lord who is the sole bestower of all dispensations, benedictions and rewards for all endeavours appropriate to the qualification of the aspirant and the quality of the action after the accumulative karma or reactions to all actions in all forms of previous existences sentient or insentient have been calculated and tabulated throughout all creation. One time one existed as a demigod, another time as a demon, aother time as an animal, another time as a human all forms of life are dependent upon the actions performed in the previous life. All are subject to diversities of existence. They have their beginning and they have an ending. Only the Supreme Lord who is eternally spiritual in His form, nature and qualities being completely transcendental to material existence along with His liberated associates and servitors, who first realising the atma or immortal soul they achieved moksa or liberation and subsequently attained eternal communion with the Supreme Lord.

Wherever Lord Krishna and Arjuna are present and whenever they are glorified by thinking about them, or reading about them, or speaking about them, or hearing about them, then at that very place will be srih or opulence, vijaya or victory, bhutih or opulence and niti or righteousness.

Thus ends the commentaries on Srimad Bhagavad-Gita Chapter 18 entitled Moksa Opadesa Yoga:Final Revelations of the Ultimate Truth by Ramanujacarya.

This completes the Sri Bhagavad-Gita Trust translations and commentaries.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna is the absolute controller and self sustaining, independent sovereign of all, the most worthy of adoration, worship and propitiation, the bestower of all blessing and benedictions and the creator, maintainer, protector and sustainer of all creation. The intelligent aspirant desiring their own best welfare should completely surrender unto Him accepting Him alone as their only refuge.

I bow down to the Supreme Lord Krishna, the origin of all creation, the ultimate source and the ultimate goal, who out causeless compassion and merciful magnaminity for His devotees, manifested a ship in the form of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to save His devotees who are drowning in the ocean of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.

I seek refuge in the Supreme Lord Krishna, who as an incarnation assumed the form of the swan Hamsa to transmit the eternal spiritual knowledge of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to Sanaka and his brothers who subsequently empowered His Holiness Nimbadityacarya the establisher of the Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya.

His Holiness Nimbadityacarya wrote a deep and profound commentary on Srimad Bhagavad-Gita; but his commentary was so esoteric and complex that I, Keshava Kashmiri acquiring spiritual wisdom by devout meditation on his holy feet have received inspired insight into his purports with the purpose of simplifying the explanation while illuminating the meaning. Hence my commentary clearly enlightens his purports in this way and is factually a commentary on His Holiness Nimbadityacarya's commentary on Srimad Bhagavad- Gita.

Now this commentary known as the Enligtener of the Principles of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita has been completed by Dig Vijaya Sri Bharati Keshava Kashmiri Bhattacarya.....OM Sri Krishnarpanam astu.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 18, verse 78 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 78

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