|Chapter 1||Lamenting the Consequence of War||Verse 36|
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusana's.
If it is put forth that in killing aggressors there is sin that argument can be nullified because in the Vasistha Samhita III.XI beginning: agnido garadas caiva sastra-panir it is stated that the following six types of aggressors can be slain.
1) one who administers poison 2) one who commits arson 3) one who attacks with deadly weapons 4) one who steals ones wealth 5) one who usurps another's property 6) and one who kidnaps another's wife
All these aggressors can immediately be slain without any sinful reaction incurred and this confirmed in Manu Samhita VIII.CCCL beginning atatayinam ayantam hanyad meaning: Without hesitation such aggressors may be slain as there is no sin in killing them. It is factual that every one of these six aggressions has been previously perpetrated by Duryodhana and his brothers, so all of them certainly should be slain. To answer this Arjuna replies that it would be sinful to kill friends, relatives and superiors.
His reasoning is because the killing of aggressors is found in the moral codes of Niti sastra whereas in Dharma sastra it is stated that one should not cause harm to any living creature. Since Dharma sastra is superior to Niti sastra the killing of revered elders such as Drona, Bhishma and others can only be the cause of sin. Without the elders and the relatives the enjoyment of sovereignty will not be palatable rather will only result in remorse. By Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna as Madhava the controller of all wealth and opulence, Arjuna's intention is to ask why the Lord of Sri the goddess of fortune would encourage him to fight a battle that will be full of gore and death, devoid of all wealth and opulence.
Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
It could possibly be accepted what Arjuna has stated regarding others on the battlefield; but for the wicked sons of Dhritarastra led by Duryodhana who have tried to harm the Pandavas in various ways should be slain immediately. In Vedic scriptures six aggressors may be rightfully slain at anytime. One who administers poison, one who commits arson, one who attacks with deadly weapons, one who steals wealth, one who usurps property and one who kidnaps a wife. The sons of Dhritarastra have committed these heinous acts of aggression against the Pandavas. The word atatayinah meaning aggressors can also be applied as criminals and such criminals committing any of the six aggressions can be rightfully slain. So the sons of Dhritarastra should be slain without any hesitation or compunction; but in rebuttal Arjuna is saying that sin would be accrued and hell would be the punishment as a result of slaying one's relatives. Their is no reward in this world or the next for such an action; therefore it would be improper to execute this. The word hi means certainly and this augments this assertion. By addressing Lord Krishna with the vocative Madhava meaning the husband of the goddess of fortune indicates that as the husband He is the progenitor of the family not the destroyer of the family and that Arjuna should also not act contrarily to this.
by Kesava Kasmiri.