Chapter 2The Eternal Reality of the Soul's ImmortalityVerse 41


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

It may be asked why the difference between actions performed without desire and actions done with desire is being given. The answer to this is being given in this verse. By karma yoga which is performed surrendering all actions to the Supreme Lord, there is spiritual intelligence which when bequeathed gives single pointed determination resolute in spiritual consciousness. But in the case of those enacting actions with desires of fruitive rewards their thoughts are endless due to their desires being endless. Indeed they have unlimited diverse branches and thus diluted by having too many conceptions in the form of all their desires. Performance of daily rituals enjoined by the Vedic scriptures such as meditation on the Supreme Lord and occasional rituals performed on special occasions such as the birth ceremony are never done in vain even if there is some defect present. for regarding them it is ordained that one who is duly authorised by the disciplic succession of one of the four authorised sampradaya's should perform there duties fully according to there capacity and in this way there is no defect or imperfection for they cannot manifest through any righteous actions which are surrendered to the Supreme Lord. But fruitive actions of one motivated by rewards are always tainted by the imperfection of fruitive desires which is binding to fruitive reaction as well as the defect of not surrendering their actions to the Supreme Lord. Hence it can be seen that there is indeed a great difference between the two.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Listen to these words with a balanced and equipoised mind. Thus has it been stated. Unlimited are the various conditioned states of the mind due to the influence of uncountable impressions leading to innumerable opinions. Therefore Arjuna may have a doubt and enquire, how can he have faith in these words without any reservation. Anticipating this the Supreme Lord neutralises this query with this verse. Amongst all the prescribed recommended opinions having truthful attributes there is always singular unity. This is the actual meaning. Propitiation of the Supreme Lord Krishna is performed only by very few as only a very few actually possess the quality of being singular and resolute in their commitment. Any performance done by others is disparate and irresolute due to the overwhelming impressions within their mind giving them an endless procession of distracting opinions.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:

There is no commentary for this verse.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

There is a huge difference between the mentality of intelligence involved in actions seeking fruitive reward and the mentality of the spiritually evolved engaged in selfless actions not seeking rewards devoted to the Lord Krishna which bring great happiness. Thus Lord Krishna says the word vyavasa or resolute. The purpose for actions must be resolute. One should perform actions with the thought that it is for the ultimate satisfaction for Lord Krishna thinking that their action will please Him and for not other reason. This resolute intelligence gives one the realization that they will easily be liberated by the Lords grace, from samsara the ocean of birth and death in the material existence and only by His grace. It is one- pointed because its aim is solely for the service and devotion of the omnipotent, omniscient, Supreme Lord Krishna the controller and dispenser of all rewards and the sole destination of all those seeking liberation. This resolute intelligence bestows one result and that is it gives great happiness and thus it is considered as already possessed by those who are in the process of devotion to Lord Krishna already. Those of fragmented intelligence who have not perceived reality and whose endless desires for fame, wealth, power, etc. and who by their actions are dictated by procuring and accumalization and work and reward. Their intelligence is fragmented into endless directions each unique unto itself and of diverse types all leading to misery. These things can only be perceived by direct experience.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 2, verse 41 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 41

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