Chapter 6The Science of Self RealizationVerse 8


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The characteristics and superiority of one who has established themselves in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness which have been previously mentioned are now being concluded and substantiated by Lord Krishna. Jnana is knowledge which has been received from instruction. Vijnana is intuitive realisation arising from perception. One who is self-satisfied within needing no external material stimulus is free from agitation and fixed with all the senses under control. Such a person has equal vision towards all and is rapt in meditation on the atam or soul within. Such a person has nothing to acquire and nothing to reject.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Lord Krishna speaks of the benefits of victory over the senses in this verse. Only one who has succeeded in controlling the senses will become equiposed and tranquil. When the mind is no longer inclined to the attraction of sense objects and is turned inward, at that time one becomes qualified for enlightenment and the Supreme Being magnanimously and comprehensively becomes established in the heart. The characteristics of a spiritually enlightened person are being explained. Such a person is not bewildered by the dualities such as heat and cold and perceives Supreme Being everywhere. Being content within due to the spiritual knowledge acquired, having duly subdued the senses with the mind fully controlled, meditation within becomes one's sole objective. The word vijnana means transcendental knowledge which denotes illumination and realisation. It has been said by Shiva himself: That which the common people are aware about the Supreme Lord is known as jnana or knowledge and that which the self- realised are transcndentally aware of is known as vijnana. What one realises by hearing and reflecting on the Vedic scriptures is jnana. What one realises by direct perception of the atma or the eternal soul is vijnana. Vijnana in special persons can also be transcendental perceptions of the Vedic scriptures. One who meditates on the atma within assumes the qualities of the atma within. A yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is in equanimity in all activities. The word yuktah denotes a yogi who is in communion with the ultimate consciousness. Constant in such consciousness without any wavering such a person remains immersed in the atma with complete equinimity.

Now begins the summation.

At all times and in all situations the awareness of the Supreme Lord Krishna being the controller, maintainer and energiser of all creation is known as jnana or knowledge. Special realisations and illuminations about confidential topics concerning Lord Krishna is vijnana or transcendental awareness. In the Mundaka Upanisad I.I.IV and V. a distinction is made regarding knowledge. It states that by reading the Vedic scriptures it is possible to become aware of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence whereas such jnana or knowledge will not bestow moksa or liberation from the material existence it will lead to vijnana or transcendental knowledge where upon cognisance of the atma and the Supreme Lord. In conclusion the Vedic scriptures give transcendental perceptions and illuminations of vijnana when the Supreme Lord Krishna or any one of His authorised incarnations is the goal to be realised and when not they merely bestow jnana. The goal of human existence is not to only experience moksa but to eternally perform activities in communion with Him.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The word jnana means knowledge relative to the atma or soul. The word vijnana is transcendental knowledge based on realisation of the atma. The word trptatma means one who is exclusively satisfied with these two forms of knowledge. The word kutastho refers to one who is perpetually consistent and unwavering amidst the variable and ever changing phenomena of material existence. One who is absorbed in the eternal nature of the atma is kutastho and hence vijitendrah or one who has all the senses under complete subjugation. Such a person realising the atma and perceiving its distinct superiority to matter is never again infatuated with the delusion of material pleasures and sense gratification. Thus all material objects whether they are gold or a clod of earth are of equal value and material activities cease to give any pleasure seeking importance. Such a person is known as yuktah meaning one in communion with the ultimate consciousness and is a fit candidate to commence perfection of meditation which leads to realisation of the Supreme Being. This is the purport of the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna is emphasising that accompanying spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures there must be personal realisation also. This will occur naturally when one is relieved of all doubts and after adequate reflection and introspection. Such a person is steadfast and serene even if coming upon something extraordinary by chance. This is because such a one is free from all desires and cravings. The external functions of the senses have been mastered and under control. Everything is envisioned equally without considering its external value, hence one neither avoids the unfavourable nor seeks the favourable. Such a person is considered a yogi or whose individual consciousness has attained communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 6, verse 8 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 8

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