Chapter 6The Science of Self RealizationVerse 20,21,22,23


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The meaning of yoga is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The primary meaning to be discerned here is the perfection of attainment by focused meditation in the etheric heart resulting in atma tattva or realisation of the soul which automatically connects one to the Supreme Lord. This is the primary meaning of the word yoga in these four verses. That superior level of consciousness wherein a purified mind is guided to perpetually meditate upon the atma or soul is designated as yoga and is defined by its result as the primary characteristic of yoga.The Yoga Sutras by Pantajali state that: Yoga is controlling the modifications of one's mentality. The same is defined for meditation by its result being the attainment of what was desired to be achieved. That superior level of consciousness where one perceives the atma alone within but distinct from the physical body and becoming completely satisfied and content no longer infatuated by the delusion of sense gratification is known as this yoga. The word yatra in the first three verses meaning which and the word tam in the fourth verse meaning that are both used to refer to this yoga.

The reason for satisfaction in the atma exclusively is also being stated by Lord Krishna. Referring to that superior level of consciousness where one experiences absolute, unsurpassed and everlasting. Bliss. At this time there is no relationship with the senses and no contact with sense objects yet one experiences bliss. How is this to understand. Lord Krishna reveals that it is transcendental and independent of material nature and is only perceived by spiritual intelligence that has realised the reality of the atma. Established thus one never wavers from the eternal truth which is the reality of the atma. The steadiness and non wavering on the atma is being validated as well by the statements that there is nothing greater than attaininment of the atma which is itself of the nature of infinite bliss. Being thus established in atma tattva one is not affected, influenced or overcome by the dualities of heat and cold or pleasure and pain. It must be noted that a result of this is the cessation of all inauspicious things and by this yoga is also defined. The word dukhena means suffering and refers also to the pleasure derived from sense objects as they are mixed with suffering also. That superior level of consciousness which is completely untouched by any contact with any type of pain or suffering should be known as yoga. The science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is called yoga. The application of the word yoga to mean action as in karma yoga is only figurative being that by performing prescribed Vedic activities such actions constitute a method of achieving yoga. Since yoga bequeaths such phenomenal results it should be exclusively practised with diligence and determination which is fortified by the conviction and commitment derived from the knowledge of the Vedic scriptures taught by the bonafide spiritual preceptor in the authorised parampara or disciplic succession. Although the results from this assuredly reach fruition in due course of time it should be engaged in with enthusiasm. One should be patient and hopeful and not be subjected to a lackadaisical attitude. A lackadaisical attitude in practise is considered a sickness of spirit.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

In verse twenty Lord Krishna uses the word atmani to indicate the body and the word atmana to indicate the mind and atmanam refers to the resplendent Supreme Lord. In verse twenty-one the word tattvatah means the form of the Supreme Lord. In verse twenty-four the compound words dukha-samyoga-viyogam means that which severs the connection to misery. The word samyoga insures that not only all connection to misery is severed but also the possibility of misery arising in the future is severed as well. The words niscayena yoktavyo means practised with firm determination.

Now begins the summation.

The word atmanam means the Supreme Lord and atmana is indicative to the Supreme Lord's grace experienced through the mind.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna is revealing the superior meditation wherein as a result of dedicated effort one completely immerses their mind in the delight of spiritual transcendence, wherein as the mind perceiving the atma or soul receives the greatest satisfaction and contentment realising there is nothing else to be desired for, wherein the consciousness experiences that sublime and ineffable bliss beyond the scope of the senses to comprehend, wherein once established one never for a moment has the desire to relinquish the exquisite bliss experienced, wherein perfection of meditation is even once achieved one desires nothing else even in the times of not meditating, and wherein once established whether immersed in meditation or on the way to perfection one does not become shaken by adversity or disturbed by afflictions even as grave and devastating as the premature death of a beloved family member, One should learn this superior meditation which severs all connection with sorrow and misery. Knowing the intrinsic nature of meditation to be thus one should perform meditation with full trust and faith, free from all doubts with the mind happy and content.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

After presenting the process such as the sitting place and the diet required while practising dhyana yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by meditation. Lord Krishna reveals the results of such endeavours in these verses. He places emphasis on this superior level of consciousness where the purified mind fully controlled by yoga becomes completely detached from worldly objectives and achieves atma tattva or realisation of the soul. From this point on the yogi becomes perfected in yoga and experiences transcendental bliss independent of all contact with the senses. This transcendental bliss is perceived by the spiritual intelligence of the atma and the yogi established in this superior level of consciousness remains fixed in the atma never digressing from it even for a moment. Lord Krishna states the words na eva calati meaning one never deviates, even in times of great adversity. This is because the transcendental bliss experienced emanates from within one's own inner self. How can one deviate from themselves for after having become established in this transcendence one realises that the immortal atma is the only thing worthy of attainment and that there is nothing greater to be gained. After explaining the condition of steadiness and non-deviation in general terms. Lord Krishna presents further in specific terms. That superior level of consciousness which brings about a total state of contentment and tranquillity without ever having even the slightest contact with sorrow and misery is known as yoga. The word dukhena means misery and includes the consequence of suffering which is induced as a result of the senses contacting sense objects and this includes pleasure as well. This superior level of consciousness should be resolutely engaged in with firm faith and dedication by an aspirant seeking moksa or liberation from material existence. And if there appears to be a delay in its accomplishment one should not become distraught or disappointed as by perseverance the goal will assuredly be attained. Disappointment is the impotent propensity to doubt and lose faith for the success in one's efforts and should not be harboured.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 6, verse 20,21,22,23 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 20,21,22,23

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