Chapter 7Knowledge of the Ultimate TruthVerse 12


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Lord Krishna states that even the three modes which result from the actions of all living entities being the serene sattvikas in mode of goodness who have total control over their minds and bodies, as well as the rajasikas in the mode of passion who are full of pride and desire pleasure, and also the tamasikas in the mode of nescience which contain anguish, despair and deluison. All these three modes arise from Lord Krishna as they are products of prakriti or material nature which manifests solely from Him. Yet He is not part of prakriti nor is He influenced by them like all embodied beings because prakriti abides within Him and is under His complete control.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Lord Krishna declares na tu aham tesu meaning I am not in them which denotes that He is not dependent on them but they are dependent on Him. The Gita Kalpa states: All the worlds are dependent upon the Supreme Lord but He is not dependent on anything.

Now begins the summation.

The three gunas or the modes of sattvas or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience all arise from prakriti or material nature which manifests from Lord Krishna alone but He is not influenced by them nor is He dependent upon anything.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna is explaining that whatever is existing in all creation possessing the characteristics of the three gunas or modes being sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience which combines into bodies and senses and objects for enjoyment comes from prakriti or material nature all emanate solely from the Supreme Lord. Constituting His body as they do, they all eternally reside within Him; but na tv aham tesu meaning He is not in them. However regarding all other sentient beings throughout creation the atma or soul is seen to depend upon the physical body for its residence but without a soul the vitality is deactivated in the physical body and it will perish. But the Supreme Lord possessing a transcendental, spiritual body which is not material does not depend upon physicality. He is totally independent and although He has ordered things in such a way as to reside in all sentient beings it is for no other purpose then His lila or pastime.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

What more needs to be said. The Supreme Lord Krishna is the sole cause of creation and all living entities. He iterates this with the words ye caiva meaning and certainly all these others of the three gunas or modes being those born in sattvas or goodness with discrimination and sense control, those born in rajas or passion with pride and desire and those born in tamas or ignorance with inertia and delusion. The original source of all living entities is exclusively Lord Krishna but their birth in any of the three gunas is caused exclusively by their own actions and subsequent reactions since time immemorial. If one is to say that the reactions may be the Supreme Lords also because He is the original, it is refuted by this verse stating that although they emanate from Him, He is not dependent upon the living entities as in the case of the atma or soul is for residence because all living entities abide in Him and are dependent upon Him.

The particle tu meaning however suggests another interpretation of this verse which may be explained as the demi-gods evolve from the quality of sattvas, humans evolve from the quality of rajas and animals evolve from the quality of tamas. All have evolved from Lord Krishna but He is not dependent upon them. At times He incarnates in the material creation for the purpose of maintaining universal order or to enjoy His lilas or divine pastimes but to do so He does not have to give up His transcendental, spiritual form for a material body as His attributes, powers and qualities all remain intact. All creation comprised of animate and inanimate beings emanates solely from Him is sustained by Him and likewise is dissolved again back into Him. In the relationship between cause and effect the Supreme Lord is always superior due exclusively to His personal potency of powers, qualities and attributes with no other support. This is because He alone is the cause and the source, the maintainer and sustainer of the entire creation and is completely independent.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 7, verse 12 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 12

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