Chapter 10The Infinite Glories of the Ultimate TruthVerse 4,5


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Lord Krishna position as the Supreme Lord of all lords and the Supreme controller of all beings is made clear in this verse and the next two beginning with the words buddhir jnanam which is the ability to discriminate between the supra subtleties of eternal spirit in juxtaposition to temporary matter. Discrimination is a mental skill which allows one to differentiate between what has value and is essential and what is non-essential of no value. Absence of bewilderment regarding the Supreme Lord is not being deluded. The word ahimsa means non-violence to any living being. Refraining from causing injury to others by word, thought or actions is what is implied here. The word danam means charity and is the donation of wealth earned by honest means to a worthy person. All of the aforementioned qualities in these two verses are but different dispositions of human beings along with their opposites and arise solely from the potency of the Supreme Lord.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

In these two verses Lord Krishna clarifies that everything manifests and evolves solely from Him alone. He begins this discourse with the words buddhir jnanam meaning the ability to discriminate between the supra subtleties of eternal spirit in juxtaposition to temporary matter. Jnanam indicates awareness. The Amarakosa dictionary states that discrimination between performance and non-performance of actions is spiritual intelligence and that awareness is the inner wisdom. The word damah is restraint of the senses. The word samah is control over the mind devoting it to the Supreme Lord. The word tustis means contentment. Contentment is satisfaction within. Also it is has been stated that contentment is understanding the transitory limitations of sense objects and the temporary nature of material existence.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The various moods, temperaments and dispositions of mankind all emanate from the Supreme Lord Krishna for He is the one who bestows them according to merit. 1) buddhi is the power of the mind to discriminate between the spiritual and the material 2) jnanam is exact knowledge relating to spiritual and non-spiritual matters. 3) asammohah is absence of false conceptions and correct perception of reality. 4) samah is maintaining equilibrium while amidst disturbing elements. 5) satyam is having the veracity to stand up and declare truth for the good of all beings. 6) damah is restraining the external organs from sense gratification. 7) samah is controlling the mind. 8) sukham is experiencing happiness and delightful emotions. 9) duhkham is experiencing affliction and unhappy emotions. 10) bhavah is birth of the blissful glow arising from a happy experience. 11) abhavam is the dire sorrow one feels which an unpleasant experience engenders. 12) bhayam is the dreadful fear one has in anticipation of some impending misfortune. 13) abhayam is the absence of fear for whatever may be impending. 14) ahimsa is non-violence to any being by thought, word, or deed. 15) samata is equanimity in whatever situation one finds their self whether good or bad. 16) tustis is contentment and amiability with all. 17) tapo is bodily austerities such as fasting for spiritual benefit according to the Vedas. 18) danam is beneficence or the giving in charity to one who is worthy. 19) yaso is fame and renown for possessing excellent qualities. 20) ayasyah is infamy and notoriety for possessing bad qualities.

The subjects discussed here are the descriptions of mental states and imply the state of mind arising from activities designated by these dispositions. Such temperaments are the active and passive expressions which give impetus to engage in activities or lethargy to remain passive and refrain from engaging in activities. Yet all these mental states are bequeathed by the Supreme Lord to each of them according to merit accrued. The next verse will explain the active agents involved in the creating, sustaining and preservation of all of creation as all beings in all existences derive their impulses solely from the will and desire of Lord Krishna.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna continues to confirm His Supreme Lordship and absolute dominion over all that exists in creation this verse and the next two beginning with the words buddhir jnanam asammohah. Buddhir spiritual intelligence to determine what is real and what is unreal. Jnanam is the power of discrimination regarding the atma or eternal soul and temporary physicality. Asammohah is the absence of illusion about the spiritual goal. Ksama is tolerance even in situations where agitation is natural. Satyam is the truthfulness of relating about something as it exactly is. Damah is restraint of the senses withdrawing the sense organs from sense objects. Samah is control of the mind keeping it away from unproductive unrighteous thinking and having it focused on the Supreme Lord. Sukham is joyful and duhkham is sorrowful. Bhavah is evolution and abhavah is dissolution. Bhayam is fear of oncoming difficulties and abhayam is free from fear. Ahimsa is abstaining from harming any being by mind, speech and body. Samata is not succumbing to passion and hatred. Tustih is feeling contentment from whatever comes on its own accord. Tapah is voluntary austerities for spiritual purposes according to the Vedic scriptures and will be more clearly enunciated in chapter VIII.XIV-XVII. Danah is offering honestly earned funds to an auspicious person, in an auspicious place at an auspicious time. Yaso is the recognition arising from appreciation of possessing righteous virtues like compassion and generosity. So like this these qualities and their opposites are the individual traits of all humans and which all emanate to them from the Supreme Lord alone, in accordance to their respective actions and merits.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 10, verse 4,5 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 4,5

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