Chapter 10The Infinite Glories of the Ultimate TruthVerse 32


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Lord Krishna uses the word sarganam meaning of all created things. Things that are created are creations. Starting with the ether in the sky, then air, then fire, then water, then earth. Of all these things which in different combinations comprise completely all material existence, Lord Krishna is their beginning, middle and end. In verse 20 of this chapter Lord Krishna revealed that He is the origin, the preservation and the dissolution of all living entities but here He reveals that He is the beginning, the maintenance and the dissolution of all creations as well and that creation, preservation and destruction should be meditated upon as His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence. The words adhyatma-vidya vidyanah are poignant and mean of all types of knowledge that exist Lord Krishna's vibhuti is the paramount knowledge of the eternal soul which exists within all living entities. The three kinds of argumentation practised by the logicians and debaters are vada, jalpa and vitandi. Lord Krishna declares that His vibhuti is vadah which is the irrefutable, conclusive truth. When debating parties establish their individual hypothesis through direct and indirect proofs in the attempt to refute the hypothesis of each other through chhala or circumvention and jati or false generalisations is know as jalpa. When one party has an already established hypothesis and the opposing party ignoring truth and logic refutes it by superior arguments and faultfinding without establishing their own hypothesis is known as vitanda. Both jalpa and vitanda are nothing more then displays of mental gymnastics and do not determine what is the reality. But the result of vadah is the ascertaining of truth and an unbiased non-partisan agreement of reality.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is sarganam or creation. Creation is the total sum of all things in existence and the Supreme Lord Krishna is the beginning or origin of all, the middle or preservation of all and the end or dissolution of all being the creator of everything. Of the three forms of debate and arguement His vibhuti known as vadah is the discriminating debate that results in knowledge of the absolute conclusive truth. This is in opposition to the other two forms being jalpa which is an argument calculated to destroy the opposition at any cost even by deception and falsehood. The other is vintanda whose aim is to criticize and undermine the oppositions position without ever establishing any position.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna states that His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is sarganam or creation as the beginning, middle and ending. In verse 20 of this chapter He revealed His vibhuti beginning, middle and ending of all living entitiess by the word bhutanam. But here He is referring to the insentient process that manifests as creation itself for the benefit and welfare for all sentient beings. Of all knowledge existing Lord Krishna's vibhuti is adhyatma-vidya or the supreme knowledge of the eternal soul which includes the Supreme Lord who bestowed its eternality and how to attain His eternal association which is the paramount attainment.

Lord Krishna declares of the three methods of debate being vadah, jalpa and vitanda His vibhuti is vadah which is the absolute conclusive reality determined by the logical method of discussion and debate regarding the pro and cons of things by those who are established in satya guna or the mode of goodness in order to determine and ascertain the ultimate truth of any topic. Such beings are always free from passion and the duplicity of subterfuge and deception. Jalpa is the method of argument which uses calculated criticism and superficial suppositions to invalidate the opposition in an underhanded manner and is like a hedge of sharp thorns purposely keeping out any chance for a conclusive truth. Vitanda is the method of argument which uses false facts and absurd affirmations to destroy an opponents position without having ever established a position of their own. The fallacy of jalpa and vitanda is that they falsify facts, distort truth and misrepresent reality for the purpose of inserting their own deceptive hidden agenda.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 10, verse 32 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 32

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