Chapter 10The Infinite Glories of the Ultimate TruthVerse 40


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The subject matter of Lord Krishna's vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is now being concluded. Lord Krishna informs that as His vibhuti is infinite and endless it is not possible to state them all and they only have been stated in brief.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

In whatever forms the manifestations of majesty, greatness, beauty and power are seen, they should be known as minuscule fractions of Lord Krishna's vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence. Manifesting as the brahman He becomes the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. Manifesting as Brahma He becomes the ruler of the aggregate of the 330 million demigods. Having been established as the predominant goal in the Sama Veda, He is know as Sama, predominant in the Vedas. Similarly He is established as aswattha or immutable to bequeath eminence to the Aswattha Tree known as the Banyan Tree and He was called Aswattha and other names etc. to give recognition to their special qualities which manifest from Him. Thus the principle of manifesting vibhuti. It is clear and apparent that the Supreme Lord Krishna's avatars or incarnations and expansions are different from His vibhuti and are also distinctly different from the demigods and any jiva or embodied being. Realisation of the Supreme Lord can manifest internally or externally in two ways as either direct perception or as supra-sensory illumination.

The realisation of Lord Krishna's expansions such as Narayana, Rama or Vishnu are direct perception possessing transcendental qualities and attributes and eternal spiritual forms. They are completely above and beyond the demigods, the jivas or embodied beings and material nature. However abiding in material objects and energising the distinctive nature in them along with the complete material existence, when perceived is known as supra sensory illumination. Because Lord Krishna possesses all of the attributes of paramatma the Supreme Soul, He is known as Paramatma. Because He is self luminous like the rays of the sun, He is known as the sun. Since He causes rain laden clouds to shower He is known as Marici. Being in equanimity to all He is known as Sama. Being the bestower of pleasure He is known as the moon. Being the knower of everything He is the Vedas. Since He abides everywhere He is Vasu. Being conscious of all things He is cit. Being the purifier He is known as Pavana the wind which purifies. Being ever immutable He is Mt. Meru. Being the holder of all He is the ocean as all land floats upon it. He is Skanda who defeated all adversaries. He is Bhrigu being adorable. He is the recitation of Vedic mantras being gloified. He is Yagna the worship and propitiation. He is Hayagriva, the horse incarnation. He is Airavata, the lord of the elephants. He is the protector of the Sri the goddess of fortune. Since He grants all the desires of nara or man He is Narada. Being the guardian of Hri and Sri both dual forms of Laksmi, He is knownas Himalaya. Being unassailable by adversaries He is vajra the thunderbolt. Since He gives protection to the obedient He is Garuda. Because abiding in the heart of all beings He gives peace He is Vasuki. Being the enjoyer of all desires He is Kandarpa or Kamadeva the god of love. Since He is the knower of all that is to be known, He is Aryama. He is time the knower of all knowledge. Being pleased with the devotees He is Varuna. Having two forms one internal and one external He is known as dvanda or dual. Granting limited knowledge to the uninitiated He is the makara. Being the controller He is Yama the demigod in charge of death. Being extremely devoted He is Prahlad. Being the Lord of all seeking beings He is the Lord of all beings. Being the renunciate of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death He is Jahnavi or Ganga-devi. Being the Lord of the atma or soul He is Adhytma. Knowing all He is wisdom. In debates He is conclusive logic. Being eulogised He is fame, speech and wealth. Since He is always remembered He is memory. Being knowledgeable He is intellect. Being compassionate He is mercy. In sport He is gambling. Being the refuge of the singers He is the Gayatri. Being ever victorious He is vitue. Being the punisher He is the rod of chastisement. Since He has great attributes He is called Brihat Sama. Since He is omniscient He is Ushana.

Being the knower of all wisdom He is awareness. Being secretive He is silence. On the path to the final goal He is perseverance. Beings pleased with understanding He is Kaplia. Being the best among humans He is Vedavyasa. Being all pervasive He is Vishnu. Thus dwelling within all beings and having innumerable qualities the resplendent Lord Krishna is the glory of the glory. Among the constellations with different qualities Lord Krishna as the moon takes precedence over them such as the stars and other planets as the moon has the predominant influence over the Earth. Among those of similar attributes such as the demigods He takes predominance over them all as Shankara or Shiva who is more then all of them. Among the jivas or embodied being He bestows eminence only to very few such as Brihaspati, Bhrgu and Arjuna. Among the demigods the primary creator after Vishnu is Brahma and there is no jiva equal to Him. In the performance of yagnas conscious awareness is superior. Of weapons Sudarsan Cakra is superior and of the Vedas the Rig Veda is spoken of as Supreme. In other places it is stated the Sama Veda is Supreme but not because of its attributes but because of the divinty presiding over it. The presiding dieties of the Rig Veda are the saktis Laksmi, Sarsawati and Parvati. Whereas the presiding diety of the Sama Veda is Shiva. Still accordingly whatever is proper following the Vedic etiquette is to be accepted.

Knowledge that the Supreme Lord is everything verifies the reality that there is nothing which exits apart from Him. Conceptions of duality are strictly on the empirical platform of material existence. Once the Universal Form has been perceived by Arjuna's consciousness and he has total awreness such conceptions of duality will cease to arise. Then he will see that everything existing is different manifestations of the Supreme Lord. As snow, ice and steam are nothing more then different manifestations of water.

om purnam adah purnam idam purnat purnam udacyate purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate

The Supreme Lord is perfect and complete and because He is perfect and complete all that emanates from Him are perfectly complete. Whatever is produced from the complete is complete in itself. Because He is complete even though unlimited completeness emantes from Him, He remains eternally complete.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is infinite without end and to account for them all is impossible as new ones are always manifesting. The ones that have been stated in this chapter are those that have manifested somehow or other with some restrictions and thus only give a limited perception.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna concludes the description of His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence with the words nanto'sti there is no limit to them and also there is no being in all existence that can account and describe them all. What Lord Krishna has given is only a very small partial description of His vibhuti.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 10, verse 40 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 40

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