Chapter 13The Individual Consciousness and The Ultimate ConsciousnessVerse 4


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Here prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence which has 24 categories consisting of the mind, ego, five organs of perception, the five senses, specifically meant by the word ksetra or the field of activity. Yet since the non-distinctiveness of matter as I and mine is evolved as such only in the physical body, in order to differentiate from it this body is called the ksetra. To clarify in further detail Lord Krishna proposes to explain what the ksetra referred to by Him is in itself such as inert, of the nature of its object, etc. What is it like such as possessed of qualities such as desire and aversion. What are its modifications such as which senses is it endowed with. How does it arise meaning how is it in conjunction with prakriti and the brahman. What is its form and how is it directed to be either sentient or insentient in just one of innumerably unlimited varieties of species. Also what is the ksetrajna or knower of the ksetra in reality and what power does it have by virtue of its transcendental and inconceivable majesty by the potency it is endowed with. All these things Lord Krishna will now explain in brief.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

What the yad viktri of the ksetra means what are its transformations and by what modifications is it affected. Yatas ca yat means by Him the Supreme Lord the ksetra has originated and that it is He alone who energized it. The words sa ca ya specifies the Supreme Lord also and indicates His form.

Now begins the summation.

The words yatas ca yat indicates that solely by the energy of the Supreme Lord all creation is energized. He is the sole energizer. Prerana means having similarity in thoughts. Sometimes even dialogue is called samvad similar talk. Since Lord Krishna energizes all creation He also energizes the thoughts of all and sometimes such thoughts manifest which are similar to His own. This is natural. So He is known as anusarini or anusmanta the ordainer of thoughts which have divine origins in Him. The ksetrajna is the atma or eternal soul and is upadrishta or the witness with supra-natural connecting abilities for thoughts and things divine which emanate from the Supreme Lord and induces this in those who seek self-realisation of the atma and attainment of the ultimate consciousness. Lord Krishna infers that this can be known is by its effect.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Now Lord Krishna is more explicitly explaining details about the tat ksetram or field of activity. Its yadrik ca or its substantial nature regarding its use and function and its purpose. Also its yad vikari or transformations and modifications along with its yatas or from whence it came meaning its origin and how it was created and for whose use. Yat refers to its attributes and qualities. Also He is inferring that knowledge about the intrinsic nature of the ksetra-jna as the knower of the ksetra which is the atma or eternal soil will be revealed as well along with its inherent potencies which is confirmed by the word prabhavas ca meaning virtues, potency and powers. Lord Krishna will give a summary of all these things.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Now Lord Krishna explains in brief the true nature of the ksetra the field of activity and the ksetra-jna the knower of the field. The relationship the ksetra has with the ksetra-jna and the consciousness which is established in Him. Knowledge of the ksetra means what type entity is embodied and the qualities are what modifications restricts it and what is its means of evolving itself through the interrelationship of matter and spirit. And of the ksetra-jna exactly what is the atma or eternal soul, who is the knower of the ksetra and what is its powers and potencies.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 13, verse 4 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 4

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