Chapter 13The Individual Consciousness and The Ultimate ConsciousnessVerse 15


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Lord Krishna is the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence known as Parabrahma and is the illuminator of the functions of the senses and their objects in the form of colour, sound and scents, etc. maintaining all of the sense organs and their functions while still bereft of any material organ. The Svetasvatara Upanisad III.IXX states: Without hands and feet Parabrahma the Supreme Being moves and grasps. Unattached and devoid of all desires yet the substratum of everything, maintaining and sustaining all. That Parabrahma transcendental to the three gunas of goodness, passion and ignorance and possess no material qualities or attributes; yet through out creation He is the preserver and protector of these qualities and attributes.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Since the Supreme Lord supports the attributes of all the senses, He is always conscious of the functions of all the sense organs; yet He, Himself possesses no material sense organs. This is what Lord Krishna is stating here.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The words sarvendriya-gunabhasam means that the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence known as Parabrahma or the Supreme Being who is capable of illuminating all the senses with consciousness along with their faculties such as sight, sound, smell, taste and touch, etc. But devoid of all material qualities Parabrahma is capable to perform all the activities of the senses without the need of physical sense organs. The same holds true for the atma or immortal soul which is capable of experiencing the activities of the senses without sense faculties and which by its own virtue has the capacity of omniscience like Parabrahma. The word asaktam means indifferent or unattached to the material and yet is sarva-bhrt ca or capable of assuming all physical bodies and is the maintainer of all physical bodies. The Chandogya Upanisad VII.XXV beginning sa eva dhastat meaning the Supreme Lord is everywhere in all directions. The Supreme Lord is nirgunam meaning transcendental to the three modes of material nature pervading material existence which are goodness, passion and ignorance and yet the Supreme Lord is the ultimate experiencer of these three modes.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

The source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence is the Supreme Lord known as Parabrahma, who perceives all sense objects and activities of the senses such as perception of sound, sight, smell, the perception of speech etc. of the external organs. Also He perceives thinking, reflecting, determining of the internal organs such as the mind and intellect and omniscience of the intuition. Although to experience these things in a material body a being requires the physical organs such as ears for sound, eyes for sight, nose for smell, etc. it is not the case for the Supreme Lord who is nirgunam or devoid of all material qualities; yet at the same time being the sustainer and nourisher of all living entities He is guna-bhoktr or the ultimate enjoyer of all spiritual qualities through the auspices of the atma or immortal soul within all sentient, living beings.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 13, verse 15 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 15

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