Chapter 13The Individual Consciousness and The Ultimate ConsciousnessVerse 25


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

In regard to various kinds of discriminative knowledge concerning the perception of paramatma or the supreme soul, alternative angels of vision are being declared by Lord Krishna in this verse and the next beginning dhyanenatmani pasyanti which means personally perceiving the divine revelation of the supreme soul. He explains that some directly perceive paramatma within the atma by meditation. Some by a repetition of mental states see it within the heart. Still others perceive it by the knowledge of discriminating between prakriti or the material substratum pervading all existence and purusa the supreme being. Yet others discern it by yoga or the science of the individual conscioiusness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness as instructed in the yoga system by Pantajali with its eight steps. Others still see it by egoless, selfless actions. The word pasyanti meaning perceive or see is applicable in all the above cases. Meditation is the most perfect and time proven mode of achievement and thus the other methods referred to are to be considered as alternative for realisation of the atma.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Dhyanenatmani means meditation on the atma or the immortal soul. Sankhyena means philosophical discrimination predicated upon knowing the form of the Supreme Lord as elucidated in the Vedic scriptures. The compound word karma- yogena denotes activities of sravanam hearing about, kirtanan chanting the names of and smaranam reflecting on the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His incarnations authorised in Veduc scriptures. This is also considered meditation as confirmed in the Gaupavan scripture as follows: The performers of actions listen to the extraordinary, sublime pastimes of the Supreme Lord and relishing them, meditate upon them constantly and realise Him. One who listens can comprehend. One who comprehends meditates fully on Him. Only beings with spiritual wisdom can realise the Supreme Lord by exclusive meditation upon Him. Otherwise such realisation is not possible to achieve by anybody.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna expounds here that some humans having become perfect in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness; perceive by the lucidness of their mind the atma or immortal soul within the physical body by means of dhyanena or devotional meditation. Others who are novice in yoga develop their minds by jnana or Vedic knowledge and sankhyena or subtle discrimination between spirit and matter and applying it diligently soon perceive the atma as well. Still others who are unfit for the regiment of jnana yoga and those who are fit but prefer an easier method and those whose duty it is to set an example for the common man; they all follow the path of karma yoga or the path of actions devoted to the Supreme Lord that embody devotion and training their minds to control the senses become established in yoga and eventually perceive the atma also.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna speaks in this verse of highly qualified persons who have directly witnessed paramatma or the Supreme Soul within the heart. Some have done this by sharp intellect and discrimination between the atma or the immortal soul and prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence. Referring to those having learned the true nature of the atma from the spiritual master He uses the words yogena or the practice of the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness and they are established in meditation. Others achieve it by complete renunciation for results from their actions.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 13, verse 25 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 25

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