|Chapter 17||The Threefold Divisions of Material Existance||Verse 19|
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Now Lord Krishna explains tapah or austerities that are indicative of tama guna the mode of ignorance. The austerities that consist of foolish concoctions as well as diabolical practices due to an acute lack of discrimination, which is sadistic and masochistic, which causes mental and physical anguish to oneself such as flagellation and causes acute suffering to others such as blood rituals and human and animal sacrifices are irrevocably situated completely in the darkness of tama guna.
Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Now Lord Krishna explains the austerities that are of tama guna or mode of ignorance. The word mudha means foolish. The word grahena means endeavour. Those who foolishly endeavour are the ignorant. Those who torture and give pain to themselves and diabolically cause injury and suffering to others are depraved and their dark resolves are at the pinnacle of nescience. Whatever activity they enact by such convoluted resolves regardless of success or failure is in the darkness of tama guna.
Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Here Lord Krishna explains that the austerity that is foolishly practiced because of repeated habit and useless attachment or is diabolically engaged in due to depraved perversity where one tortures oneself as in self- mortification to gain power or which causes injury, pain and suffering to other living entities such as blood rituals of animal and human sacrifices, is situated irrevocably in the inertia of darkness in tama guna the mode of ignorance.