Chapter 18Final Revelations of the Ultimate TruthVerse 23


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Now the three fold influences of the three gunas or modes of material nature in respect to actions will be described by Lord Krishna in three verses. Actions that are prescribed and ordained in the Vedic scriptures and performed as a matter of duty without attachment and without conceptions of attraction, such as love of one's family nor repulsion such as hatred of one's enemies and are devoid of the desire for coveting rewards; such actions are known to be situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

In chapter three, verse 30 Lord Krishna spoke of surrendering all actions with mind fixed on the Supreme Lord. This is because not performing actions according to duty, time and circumstance will cause demerits and give obstacles. Thus the performance of prescribed Vedic activities with the results surrendered unto the Supreme Lord due to knowing and appreciating His sublime magnificence as the creator of all is known as regulated duties in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

Now begins the summation.

The statement in verse thirty of fixating the consciousness should be understood in meditating on the principle form of the Supreme Lord one is attracted to. The act of surrendering all actions to the Supreme Lord is such that consciousness is fixed blissfully without cessation. Such actions of communion with the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures is known by the enlightened as situated fully in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna uses the word niyatma meaning consistency and refers to the regulated performance of prescribed Vedic activities as a matter of duty according to varnasrama the position and status one is situated in society. The words sanga-rahitam means free from attachment and egoism that one is the doer. The words araga-dvestha mean devoid of attraction to fame, power and an enjoying nature as well as void of aversion for defeat, failure and obscurity. Acts performed without a mentality of attraction and aversion are without vanity and ego and bereft of desire for phala or rewards and are firmly situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Having described the three types of action dependent upon the knowledge possessed by the performer in each of the three gunas or modes of material nature. Lord Krishna now presents the actions of prescribed Vedic activities beginning with sattva guna the mode of goodness. Those actions that are ordained by the Vedic scriptures as obligatory, that are performed as a matter of duty without attachment, that are executed without an egoic sense of being the doer, that are performed without desire for rewards in the form of name, fame, wealth, honor, adoration, etc. Such actions are deemed by the wise as being situated in sattva guna.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 18, verse 23 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 23

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